Translation is the RNA directed synthesis of polypeptides. This process requires all three classes of RNA. Although the chemistry of peptide bond formation is relatively simple, the processes leading to the ability to form a peptide bond are exceedingly complex. The template for correct addition of individual amino acids is the mRNA, yet both tRNAs and rRNAs are involved in the process. The tRNAs carry activated amino acids into the ribosome which is composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins. The ribosome is associated with the mRNA ensuring correct access of activated tRNAs and containing the necessary enzymatic activities to catalyze peptide bond formation.
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Early genetic experiments demonstrated:
1. The co-linearity between the DNA and protein encoded by the DNA. Yanofsky showed that the order of observed mutations in the E. coli tryptophan synthetase gene was the same as the corresponding amino acid changes in the protein.
2. Crick and Brenner demonstrated, from a large series of double mutants of the bacteriophage T4, that the genetic code is read in a sequential manner starting from a fixed point in the gene, the code was most likely a triplet and that all 64 possible combinations of the 4 nucleotides code for amino acids, i.e. the code is degenerate since there are only 20 amino acids.
The above mentioned experiments only indicated deductive correlation's regarding the genetic code. The precise dictionary of the genetic code was originally determined by the use of in vitro translation systems derived from E. coli cells. Synthetic polyribonucleotides were added to these translation system along with all twenty amino acids. One amino acid at a time was radiolabeled. The first demonstration of the dictionary of the genetic code was with the use of poly(U). This synthetic polyribonucleotide encoded the amino acid phenylalanine, i.e. the resulting polypeptide was poly(F).
The utilization of a variety of repeating di- tri- and tetra polyribonucleotides established the entire genetic code. These results of these experiments confirmed that some amino acids are encoded for by more than one triplet codon, hence the degeneracy of the genetic code. These experiments also established the identity of translational termination codons.
An additional important point to come from these early experiments was that the 5' end of the RNA corresponded to the amino terminus of the polypeptide. This was important since previous labeling experiments had demonstrated that the N-terminus is the beginning of the elongating polypeptide. Therefore, in vitro translation experiments established that the RNA is read in the 5' to 3' direction.
Crick first postulated that translation of the genetic code would be carried out through mediation of adapter molecules. Each adapter was postulated to carry a specific amino acid and to recognize the corresponding codon. He suggested that the adapters contain RNA because codon recognition could then occur by complementarity to the sequences of the codons in the mRNA.
During the course of in vitro protein synthesis and labeling experiments it was shown that the amino acids became transiently bound to a low molecular weight mass fraction of RNA. This fraction of RNAs have been termed transfer RNAs (tRNAs) since they transfer amino acids to the elongating polypeptide. These results indicate that accurate translation requires two equally important recognition steps:
1. The correct choice of amino acid needs to be made for attachment to the correspondingly correct tRNA.
2. Selection of the correct amino acid-charged tRNA by the mRNA. This process is facilitated by the ribosomes which we will discuss below.
1. The genetic code is read in a sequential manner starting near the 5' end of the mRNA. This means that translation proceeds along the mRNA in the 5' ——> 3' direction which corresponds to the N-terminal to C-terminal direction of the amino acid sequences within proteins.
2. The code is composed of a triplet of nucleotides.
3. That all 64 possible combinations of the 4 nucleotides code for amino acids, i.e. the code is degenerate since there are only 20 amino acids.
The precise dictionary of the genetic code was determined with the use of in vitro translation systems and polyribonucleotides. The results of these experiments confirmed that some amino acids are encoded by more than one triplet codon, hence the degeneracy of the genetic code. These experiments also established the identity of translational termination codons.back to the top
Shown below are the triplets that are used for each of the 20 amino acids found in eukaryotic proteins. The row on the left side indicates the first nucleotide of each triplet and the row across the top represents the second nucleotide. The wobble position nucleotides are indicated in blue. The three stop codons are highlighted in red.
More than 300 different tRNAs have been sequenced, either directly or from their corresponding DNA sequences. tRNAs vary in length from 60–95 nucleotides (18–28 kD). The majority contain 76 nucleotides. Evidence has shown that the role of tRNAs in translation is to carry activated amino acids to the elongating polypeptide chain. All tRNAs:
1. Exhibit a cloverleaf-like secondary structure.
Structure of a typical tRNA moleculae. The common stem-loop domains that form the anticodon loop, the D loop, and the TΨC loop are highlighted. The –CCA– nucleotides shown at the 3' end of the tRNA are added post-transcriptionally to all eukaryotic tRNAs.
2. Have a 5'-terminal phosphate.
3. Have a 7 bp stem that includes the 5'-terminal nucleotide and may contain non-Watson-Crick base pairs, e.g. GU. This portion of the tRNA is called the acceptor since the amino acid is carried by the tRNA while attached to the 3'-terminal OH group.
4. Have a D loop and a TΨC loop.
5. Have an anti-codon loop.
6. Terminate at the 3'-end with the sequence 5'–CCA–3'.
7. Contain 13 invariant positions and 8 semi-variant positions.
8. Contain numerous modified nucleotide bases (see Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids for structures of several modified nucleotides in tRNAs).back to the top
Activation of amino acids is carried out by a two step process catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Each tRNA, and the amino acid it carries, are recognized by individual aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. This means there exists at least 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, there are actually at least 21 since the initiator met-tRNA of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is distinct from non-initiator met-tRNAs.
Activation of amino acids requires energy in the form of ATP and occurs in a two step reaction catalyzed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. First the enzyme attaches the amino acid to the α-phosphate of ATP with the concomitant release of pyrophosphate. This is termed an aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate. In the second step the enzyme catalyzes transfer of the amino acid to either the 2'– or 3'–OH of the ribose portion of the 3'-terminal adenosine residue of the tRNA generating the activated aminoacyl-tRNA. Although these reaction are freely reversible, the forward reaction is favored by the coupled hydrolysis of PPi.
Accurate recognition of the correct amino acid as well as the correct tRNA is different for each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Since the different amino acids have different R groups, the enzyme for each amino acid has a different binding pocket for its specific amino acid. It is not the anticodon that determines the tRNA utilized by the synthetases. Although the exact mechanism is not known for all synthetases, it is likely to be a combination of the presence of specific modified bases and the secondary structure of the tRNA that is correctly recognized by the synthetases.
It is absolutely necessary that the discrimination of correct amino acid and correct tRNA be made by a given synthetase prior to release of the aminoacyl-tRNA from the enzyme. Once the product is released there is no further way to proof-read whether a given tRNA is coupled to its corresponding amino acid. Erroneous coupling would lead to the wrong amino acid being incorporated into the polypeptide since the discrimination of amino acid during protein synthesis comes from the recognition of the anticodon of a tRNA by the codon of the mRNA and not by recognition of the amino acid. This was demonstrated by reductive desulfuration of cys-tRNAcys with Raney nickel generating ala-tRNAcys. Alanine was then incorporated into an elongating polypeptide where cysteine should have been.back to the top
As discussed above, 3 of the possible 64 triplet codons are recognized as translational termination codons. The remaining 61 codons might be considered as being recognized by individual tRNAs. Most cells contain isoaccepting tRNAs, different tRNAs that are specific for the same amino acid, however, many tRNAs bind to two or three codons specifying their cognate amino acids. As an example yeast tRNAphe has the anticodon 5'–GmAA–3' and can recognize the codons 5'–UUC–3' and 5'–UUU–3'. It is, therefore, possible for non-Watson-Crick base pairing to occur at the third codon position, i.e. the 3' nucleotide of the mRNA codon and the 5' nucleotide of the tRNA anticodon. This has phenomenon been termed the wobble hypothesis
Diagram showing the various modified nucleotides of tRNAs that are found in the wobble position in the anticodon. The top half shows the wobble nucleotides of the anticodon in blue and the various nucleotides (in red) of the wobble position of the codon that can be found in non-Watson-Crick base-pairs. The lower panel illustrates the opposite showing the wobble nucleotides of the codon in blue and the associated wobble nucleotides of the anticodon in red.
Now that we have charged aminoacyl-tRNAs and the mRNAs to convert nucleotide sequences to amino acid sequences we need to bring the two together accurately and efficiently. This is the job of the ribosomes. Ribosomes are composed of proteins and rRNAs.
All living organisms need to synthesis proteins and all cells of an organism need to synthesize proteins, therefore, it is not hard to imagine that ribosomes are a major constituent of all cells of all organisms. The make up of the ribosomes, both rRNA and associated proteins are slightly different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.back to the top
The ability to begin to identify the roles of the various ribosomal proteins in the processes of ribosome assembly and translation was aided by the discovery that the ribosomal subunits will self assemble in vitro from their constituent parts.
Following assembly of both the small and large subunits onto the mRNA, and given the presence of charged tRNAs, protein synthesis can take place. To reiterate the process of protein synthesis:
1. Synthesis proceeds from the N-terminus to the C-terminus of the protein.
2. The ribosomes "read" the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction.
3. Active translation occurs on polyribosomes (also termed polysomes). This means that more than one ribosome can be bound to and translate a given mRNA at any one time.
4. Chain elongation occurs by sequential addition of amino acids to the C-terminal end of the ribosome bound polypeptide.
Translation proceeds in an ordered process. First accurate and efficient initiation occurs, then chain elongation and finally accurate and efficient termination must occur. All three of these processes require specific proteins, some of which are ribosome associated and some of which are separate from the ribosome, but may be temporarily associated with it.back to the top
Initiation of translation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes requires a specific initiator tRNA, tRNAimet, that is used to incorporate the initial methionine residue into all proteins. In E. coli a specific version of tRNAimet is required to initiate translation, [tRNAifmet]. The methionine attached to this initiator tRNA is formylated. Formylation requires N10-formy-THF and is carried out after the methionine is attached to the tRNA. The fmet-tRNAifmet still recognizes the same codon, AUG, as regular tRNAmet. Although tRNAimet is specific for initiation in eukaryotes it is not a formylated tRNAmet.
The initiation of translation requires recognition of an AUG codon. In the polycistronic prokaryotic RNAs this AUG codon is located adjacent to a Shine-Delgarno element in the mRNA. The Shine-Delgarno element is recognized by complimentary sequences in the small subunit rRNA (16S in E. coli).
The Shine-Delgarno element is found at the 5' side of each initiator AUG codon in prokaryotic polycistronic mRNAs. This element is complementary to sequences present near the 3'-end of the 16S rRNA of the prokaryotic ribosome.
In eukaryotes, initiator AUGs are generally, but not always, the first encountered by the translational machinery. A specific sequence context, surrounding the initiator AUG, aids ribosomal discrimination. This context is A/GCcA/GCCAUGA/G in most mRNAs and is referred to as the Kozak consensus sequence.back to the top
The specific non-ribosomally associated proteins required for accurate translational initiation are termed initiation factors. In E. coli they are IFs in eukaryotes they are eIFs. Numerous eIFs have been identified:
|eIF-1||repositioning of met-tRNA to facilitate mRNA binding|
|eIF-2||heterotrimeric G-protein composed of α, β, and γ subunits; formation of ternary complex consisting of eIF2-GTP + initiator methionine tRNA (met-tRNAimet); AUG-dependent met-tRNAimet binding to 40S ribosome|
|eIF-2B (also called GEF) guanine nucleotide exchange factor, composed of 5 subunits: α, β, γ, δ, ε||GTP/GDP exchange during eIF-2 recycling; genes encoding the subunits identified as EIF2B1–EIF2B5, mutations in any one of which causes the severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder called leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM)|
|eIF-3, composed of 13 subunits (see below)||ribosome subunit antiassociation by binding to 40S subunit; eIF-3e and eIF-3i subunits transform normal cells when overexpressed, eIF-3A (also called eIF3 p170) overexpression has been shown to be associated with several human cancers|
|Initiation factor complex often referred to as eIF-4F composed of 3 primary subunits: eIF-4E, eIF-4A, eIF-4G and at least 2 additional factors: PABP, Mnk1 (or Mnk2)||mRNA binding to 40S subunit, ATPase-dependent RNA helicase activity, interaction between polyA tail and cap structure|
|PABP: polyA-binding protein||binds to the polyA tail of mRNAs and provides a link to eIF-4G|
Mnk1 and Mnk2
|phosphorylate eIF-4E increasing association with cap structure|
|eIF-4A||ATPase-dependent RNA helicase|
|eIF-4E (see below)||5' cap recognition; frequently found overexpressed in human cancers, inhibition of eIF4E is currently a target for anti-cancer therapies|
|4E-BP (also called PHAS) 3 known forms||when de-phosphorylated 4E-BP binds eIF-4E and represses its' activity, phosphorylation of 4E-BP occurs in response to many growth stimuli leading to release of eIF-4E and increased translational initiation|
|eIF-4G||acts as a scaffold for the assembly of eIF-4E and -4A in the eIF-4F complex, interaction with PABP allows 5'-end and 3'-ends of mRNAs to interact|
|eIF-4B||stimulates helicase, binds simultaneously with eIF-4F|
|eIF-5||release of eIF-2 and eIF-3, ribosome-dependent GTPase|
|eIF-6||ribosome subunit antiassociation|
The eIF-3 complex is composed of 13 different subunits whose sizes, nomenclature and functions are described in the Table below. The importance of the eIF-3 complex in translation initiation is demonstrated by the fact that assembly of the eIF-2-GTP-met-tRNAimet (the ternary complex), binding of the ternary complex and other components of the 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) to the ribosome 40S subunit, recruitment of the mRNA to the 43S PIC, and scanning of the mRNA for the initiator AUG codon recognition are all dependent on eIF-3 complex activity. Therefore, primary function of the components of eIF-3 is to act as a scaffold for the assembly of the PIC and this assembled complex is referred to as the multi-initiation factor complex (MFC).
|Nomenclature||Human subunit designation||Function(s)|
|eIF3A||p170||binds 40S subunit, binds eIF-4B, involved in formation of MFC, recruitment of mRNA and the ternary complex|
|eIF3B||p116||binds 40S subunit, involved in formation of MFC, recruitment and scanning of mRNA, recruitment of ternary complex|
|eIF3C||p110||binds 40S subunit, involved in formation of MFC, recruitment and scanning of mRNA, recruitment of ternary complex, recognition of the initiator AUG|
|eIF3F||p47||proposed to be the binding site for mTOR and p70S6K (see regulation of eIF-4E activity below)|
|eIF3G||p44||binding of eIF-4B|
|eIF3J||p35||binds 40S subunit, involved in formation of the MFC|
Initiation of translation requires 4 specific steps:
1. A ribosome must dissociate into its' 40S and 60S subunits.
2. A ternary complex termed the preinitiation complex is formed consisting of the initiator, GTP, eIF-2 and the 40S subunit.
3. The mRNA is bound to the preinitiation complex.
4. The 60S subunit associates with the preinitiation complex to form the 80S initiation complex.
Details of the complex processes required for accurate and efficient initiation of translation. Several initiation factors (e.g. eIF-1 and eIF-3) are required to ensure that the 60S and 40S ribosomal subunits remain separated (anti-association) so that new rounds of translation can begin. The ternary complex, composed of GTP bound to the α-subunit of eIF2 and the initiator methionyl-tRNAmet, can engage the 40S subunit. The eIF-4F complex, which comprises the cap-binding factor, eIF-4E, the RNA helicase eIF-4A, and the scaffold subunit, eIF-4G captures an mRNA and brings it to the 40S subunit and the ternary complex. Once the mRNA, 40S and 60S, subunits, and the ternary complex are complexed the resulting 80S initiation complex constitutes the completion of the process of translation initiation.
The initiation factors eIF-1 and eIF-3 bind to the 40S ribosomal subunit favoring antiassociation to the 60S subunit. The prevention of subunit reassociation allows the preinitiation complex to form.
The first step in the formation of the preinitiation complex is the binding of GTP to eIF-2 to form a binary complex. eIF-2 is composed of three subunits, α, β and γ. The binary complex then binds to the activated initiator tRNA, met-tRNAmet forming a ternary complex that then binds to the 40S subunit forming the 43S preinitiation complex. The preinitiation complex is stabilized by the earlier association of eIF-3 and eIF-1 to the 40S subunit.
The cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs is bound by specific eIFs prior to association with the preinitiation complex. Cap binding is accomplished by the initiation factor eIF-4F. This factor is actually a complex of 3 proteins; eIF-4E, A and G. The protein eIF-4E is a 24 kDa protein which physically recognizes and binds to the cap structure. eIF-4A is a 46 kDa protein which binds and hydrolyzes ATP and exhibits RNA helicase activity. Unwinding of mRNA secondary structure is necessary to allow access of the ribosomal subunits. eIF-4G aids in binding of the mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex.
Once the mRNA is properly aligned onto the preinitiation complex and the initiator met-tRNAimet is bound to the initiator AUG codon (a process facilitated by eIF-1) the 60S subunit associates with the complex. The association of the 60S subunit requires the activity of eIF-5 which has first bound to the pre-initiation complex. The energy needed to stimulate the formation of the 80S initiation complex comes from the hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2. The GDP bound form of eIF-2 then binds to eIF-2B which stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on eIF-2. The activity called eIF-2B is actually a complex of five subunits identified as α, β, γ, δ, and ε. The GDP for GTP exchange reaction is catalyzed by a sub-complex of the γ and ε subunits. The α, β, and γ subunits form another sub-complex that binds phosphorylated eIF-2α resulting in reduced nucleotide exchange. The phosphorylation of eIF-2α is discussed in the next section. Thus, under conditions where eIF-2α is not phosphorylated is serves as a substrate for eIF-2B but when phosphorylated eIF-2α acts as a competitive inhibitor to eIF-2B activity. When GTP is exchanged eIF-2B dissociates from eIF-2. The overall process of eIF-2B-mediated GTP for GDP exchange in eIF-2 is termed the eIF-2 cycle as shown in the Figure below. This cycle is absolutely required in order for eukaryotic translational initiation to occur.
At this stage the initiator met-tRNAmet is bound to the mRNA within a site of the ribosome termed the P-site, for peptide site. The other site within the ribosome to which incoming charged tRNAs bind is termed the A-site, for amino acid site.
The eIF-2 cycle involves the regeneration of GTP-bound eIF-2 following the hydrolysis of GTP during translational initiation. When the 40S preinitiation complex is engaged with the 60S ribosome to form the 80S initiation complex, the GTP bound to eIF-2 is hydrolyzed providing energy for the process. In order for additional rounds of translational initiation to occur, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must be exchanged for GTP. This is the function of eIF-2B which is also called guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF).
Regulation of initiation in eukaryotes is primarily effected by phosphorylation of Ser (S) residues in the α-subunit of eIF-2. Phosphorylated eIF-2, in the absence of eIF-2B, is just as active an initiator as non-phosphorylated eIF-2. However, when eIF-2 is phosphorylated the GDP-bound complex is stabilized and exchange for GTP is inhibited. The exchange of GDP for GTP is mediated by eIF-2B (see section above). When eIF-2 is phosphorylated the α, β, and γ subunit composed sub-complex of eIF-2B binds more tightly slowing the rate of nucleotide exchange. It is this inhibited exchange that affects the rate of initiation. Regulation of translational initiation, via phosphorylation of eIF-2α, occurs under a number of different conditions that include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, nutrient stress (deprivation or restriction), viral infection, and in erythrocytes as a consequence of limiting heme. Each of these distinct regulatory pathways involves a unique eIF-2α kinase, and there are four of these related kinases known to exist in mammalian cells. Each eIF-2α kinase contains unique regulatory domains that interact with various inducing agents in response to different stress-related conditions.
Each of the various eIF-2α kinases responds to different physiological and/or environmental stressors and induces the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eIF-2. In the case of nutritional stress or the unfolded protein response (UPR) the phosphorylation of eIF-2α results in the preferential translation of transcription factors (e.g. ATF4) that initiate a pattern of gene expression that allows the cell to respond to the stress or in the case of severe and damaging stress the apoptotic program is triggered. GADD34 is a regulatory subuit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). Transcription of the GADD34 gene by ATF4 allows for a feedback control loop on the level of eIF-2α phosphorylation.
The first eIF-2α kinase identified and characterized was isolated from reticulocyte lysates and shown to be involved in the control of globin mRNA translation in response to deficiency in heme. This kinase (discussed in detail below) is called the heme regulated inhibitor (HRI). The protein is also called the heme controlled repressor (HCR) or the heme controlled inhibitor (HCI). The gene encoding HRI is identified as EIF2AK1.
Viral infection involving double-stranded RNA viruses activates the expression of the interferons which in turn activate the eIF-2α kinase known as PKR (RNA-dependent kinase). PKR is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene and details of this kinase are described below in the section on Interferon Control of Translation.
Proteins that are destined for secretory vesicles are translated while associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. During translation secreted protein are transported into the lumen of the ER in an unfolded state. Proper folding occurs prior to the transfer of the protein to the Golgi apparatus. Under certain conditions the secretory responses of a cell can exceed the capacity of the folding processes of the ER. Accumulation of unfolded proteins triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is a form of ER stress. The UPR involves different protein effectors allowing the cell to respond appropriately and enhance the processing, assembly, and transport of secreted proteins. Among the proteins activated by the UPR is an eIF-2α kinase termed PERK which is a transmembrane protein kinase associated with the ER. PERK is RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase. PERK, also known as PEK (pancreatic eIF-2α kinase), is encoded by the EIF2AK3 gene. The aim of PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF-2α is to reduce global protein synthesis allowing the cell time to correct the impaired process of protein folding. In addition to reducing global translation, the activation of PERK results in the preferential translation of a transcription factor identified as ATF4 (activated transcription factor 4). Deficiencies in EIF2AK3 gene which encodes PERK result in the extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder known as Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS). WRS is characterized by dysfunction in specific secretory tissues including the pancreas. The defect in insulin secretion in WRS results in a specific form of neonatal diabetes.
Nutritional deprivation, in particular amino acid deficiency, results in the activation of the fourth eIF-2α kinase known as GCN2. GCN2 is the mammalian homolog of the general control non-derepressible-2 gene first identified in yeast. Mammalian GCN2 is encoded by the EIF2AK4 gene. In addition to nutritional deprivation, GCN2 is induced by UV irradiation, inhibition of proteosome function, and infection by certain viruses. With respect to amino acid deficiency the activation of GCN2 occurs via the binding of uncharged tRNAs to the regulatory domain of the enzyme.
Evidence shows that the activities of PERK and GCN2 work in a concerted fashion to ensure that during periods of extended stress global protein synthesis is inhibited. Under these types of conditions PERK serves a primary inhibitory function while GCN2 serves a secondary inhibitory role allowing for cell cycle arrest in response to ER stress.
The key protein whose translation is activated in response to stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF-2α is the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4; also known as CREB2 = cAMP response element-binding protein 2). In response to ER stress the levels of ATF4 mRNA do not change but the level of the protein increases dramatically, indicative of induced translation. The ATF4 mRNA contains two upstream open reading frames (uORFs) identified as uORF1 and uORF2. uORF1 encodes only three amino acids while uORF2 encodes 59 amino acids and overlaps the first 83 amino acids of the functional ATF4 protein. Examination of the role of these two uORFs in ATF4 translational control using in vitro assays demonstrated that uORF1 serves a positive role in translational control allowing ribosomes to overcome the inhibitory role of uORF2 in response to eIF-2α phosphorylation. Under non-stressed conditions when eIF-2α phosphorylation is low the ribosomes rapidly scan to uORF2 and translation a non-functional protein thus reducing the overall level of functional ATF4 protein. However, in the stressed condition there is less eIF-2-GTP which slows translational initiation allowing ribosomes that have engaged the limited eIF-2-GTP to scan to the correct ATF translational initiation site allowing for increases in functional ATF4 protein. The function of ATF4 is to induce the expression of genes that allow the cell to respond to the stress conditions such as the transcription factors FOS, JUN and C/EBP (CAAT-box/enhancer binding protein). ATF4 translation also activates a feedback regulatory mechanism to control the level of eIF-2α phosphorylation via increased expression of the GADD34 gene (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34). GADD34 is a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and when the GADD34 gene is activated by ATF4 there is a resultant increase in PP-1-mediated phosphate removal from eIF-2α due to increased GADD34 protein.back to the top
The process of elongation, like that of initiation requires specific non-ribosomal proteins. In E. coli these are EFs and in eEFs. Elongation of polypeptides occurs in a cyclic manner such that at the end of one complete round of amino acid addition the A site will be empty and ready to accept the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA dictated by the next codon of the mRNA. This means that not only does the incoming amino acid need to be attached to the peptide chain but the ribosome must move down the mRNA to the next codon. Each incoming aminoacyl-tRNA is brought to the ribosome by an eEF-1α-GTP complex. When the correct tRNA is deposited into the A site the GTP is hydrolyzed and the eEF-1α-GDP complex dissociates. In order for additional translocation events the GDP must be exchanged for GTP. This is carried out by eEF-1βγ similarly to the GTP exchange that occurs with eIF-2 catalyzed by eIF-2B.
The peptide attached to the tRNA in the P site is transferred to the amino group at the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site forming a new peptide bond. This reaction is catalyzed by peptidyltransferase activity which resides in what is termed the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) of the large ribosomal subunit (60S subunit). This enzymatic process is termed transpeptidation. This enzymatic activity is not mediated by any ribosomal proteins but instead by ribosomal RNA contained in the 60S subunit. This RNA encoded enzymatic activity is referred to as a ribozyme.
The elongated peptide now resides on a tRNA in the A site. The A site needs to be freed in order to accept the next aminoacyl-tRNA. The process of moving the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site is termed, translocation. Translocation is catalyzed by eEF-2 coupled to GTP hydrolysis. In the process of translocation the ribosome is moved along the mRNA such that the next codon of the mRNA resides under the A site. Following translocation eEF-2 is released from the ribosome. The cycle can now begin again. The ability of eEF-2 to carry out translocation is regulated by the state of phosphorylation of the enzyme, when phosphorylated the enzyme is inhibited. Phosphorylation of eEF-2 is catalyzed by the enzyme eEF2 kinase (eEF2K). Regulation of eEF2K activity is normally under the control of insulin and Ca2+ fluxes. The Ca2+-mediated effects are the result of calmodulin interaction with eEF2K. Activation of eEF2K in skeletal muscle by Ca2+ is important to reduce consumption of ATP in the process of protein synthesis during periods of exertion which will lead to release of intracellular Ca2+ stores. eEF2K itself is also regulated by phosphorylation and one of the kinases that phosphorylates the enzyme is regulated by mTOR (see Regulation of eIF-4E below). In addition, the master metabolic regulatory kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) will phosphorylate and activate eEF2K leading to inhibition of eEF-2 activity.
Following initiation, the process of translation involves a continuing series of elongation steps. Each step comprises movement of the mRNA through the ribosome so that the tRNA carrying the elongating polypeptide resides within a pocket of the 60S subunit termed the P-site (for peptide site). The elongation factor eEF-1α carries each incoming aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site (for amino acid site) depedent upon the correct codon-anticodon interactions. The peptide in the P-site is transferred to the amino acid in the A-site through the action of the ribozyme activity known as peptidyltransferase. Following peptide transfer the elongation factor eEF-2 induces translocation of the ribosome along the mRNA such that the naked tRNA is temporarily within the E-site (for ejection site) of the 60S ribosome and the peptitidyl-tRNA is moved to the P-site leaving the A-site empty and residing over the next codon of the mRNA. The process continues until a stop codon is encountered.
Like initiation and elongation, translational termination requires specific protein factors identified as releasing factors, RFs in E. coli and eRFs in eukaryotes. There are 2 RFs in E. coli and one in eukaryotes. The signals for termination are the same in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These signals are termination codons present in the mRNA. There are 3 termination codons, UAG, UAA and UGA.
Translation termination occurs when a stop codon is encountered within the context of the A-site of the 60S subunit. The termination factor eRF, which binds GTP, then stimulates the peptidyltransferase ribozyme to transfer the peptide, from the tRNA in the P-site, to H2O coupled with the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP + Pi. The peptide is released from the ribosome along with the naked tRNA and eRF-GDP complex. The anti-association factors then promote dissociation iof the two ribosomal subunits and the process can begin anew.
In E. coli the termination codons UAA and UAG are recognized by RF-1, whereas RF-2 recognizes the termination codons UAA and UGA. The eRF binds to the A site of the ribosome in conjunction with GTP. The binding of eRF to the ribosome stimulates the peptidytransferase activity to transfer the peptidyl group to water instead of an aminoacyl-tRNA. The resulting uncharged tRNA left in the P site is expelled with concomitant hydrolysis of GTP. The inactive ribosome then releases its mRNA and the 80S complex dissociates into the 40S and 60S subunits ready for another round of translation.back to the top
Selenium is a trace element and is found as a component of several prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes that are involved in redox reactions. The selenium in these selenoproteins is incorporated as a unique amino acid, selenocysteine, during translation. A particularly important eukaryotic selenoenzyme is glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme is required during the oxidation of glutathione by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides.
Selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotic proteins occurs cotranslationally at UGA codons (normally stop codons) via the interactions of a number of specialized proteins and protein complexes. In addition, there are specific secondary structures in the 3′ untranslated regions of selenoprotein mRNAs, termed SECIS elements, that are required for selenocysteine insertion into the elongating protein. One of the complexes required for this important modification is comprised of a selenocysteinyl tRNA [(Sec)-tRNA(Ser)Sec] and its specific elongation factor identified as selenoprotein translation factor B (SelB). SelB is also commonly called eukaryotic elongation factor, selenocysteine-tRNA-specific (EEFsec or EFsec). The protein that is involved in the interaction of the SECIS element with the (Sec)-tRNA(Ser)Sec if referred to as SECIS binding protein, SBP2. Additional proteins involved in synthesis pathway include two selenophosphate synthetases, SPS1 and SPS2, ribosomal protein L30, and two factors that have been shown to bind (Sec)-tRNA(Ser)Sec identified as soluble liver antigen/liver protein (SLA/LP) and SECp43.
Selenocysteine biosynthesis and incorporation. The first steps involve the activation of serine onto the (Sec)-tRNA followed by enzymatic conversion to selenocysteine generating (Sec)-tRNA(Ser)Sec. Next the (Sec)-tRNA(Ser)Sec is bound by SelB and the complex is incorporated into the translational machinery aided by SBP2 (not shown). The elongating protein is transfered to the selenocysteinyl-tRNA via the action of peptidyltransferase as for any other incoming amino acid and normal elongation continues.back to the top
The cellular levels of eIF-4E are the lowest of all eukaryotic initiation factors which makes this factor a prime target for regulation. Indeed, at least 3 distinct mechanisms are known to exist that regulate the level and activity of eIF-4E. These include regulation of the level of transcription of the eIF-4E gene, post-translational modification via phosphorylation and inhibition by interaction with binding proteins.
Although the exact mechanisms used to upregulate the transcription of the eIF-4E gene are not yet well understood, it is known that exposure of cells to growth factors as well as activation of T cells leads to increased expression of eIF-4E. The proto-oncogene MYC is believed to play a role in the transcriptional activation of eIF-4E as 2 functional MYC-binding sites have been found in the promoter region of the eIF-4E gene. Of significant note is the finding that cells that are stably over-expressing the MYC gene also have enhanced levels of eIF-4E. Quite strikingly it has been shown that promiscuous elevation in the levels of eIF-4E lead to tumorigenesis placing this translation factor in the category of proto-oncogene.
Numerous extracellular stimuli (e.g. insulin, EGF, angiotensin II and gastrin) that exert a portion of their effects at the level of enhanced translation do so by affecting the state of eIF-4E phosphorylation. However, it should be noted that not all signals that lead to increased eIF-4E phosphorylation lead to increased rates of translation. Changes in eIF-4E phosphorylation correlate well with progression through the cell cycle. In resting (G0) cells eIF-4E phosphorylation is low, it increases during G1 and S phase and then declines again in M phase. Phosphorylation of eIF-4E occurs at one major site which is Ser209 (in the human and mouse proteins).
The primary signal transduction pathway leading to eIF-4E phosphorylation is that involving the RAS gene. Many growth factors stimulate activation of RAS in response to binding their cognate receptors. Subsequently, RAS activation leads to the phosphorylation and activation of MAP-interacting kinase-1 (Mnk1) which in turn phosphorylates eIF-4E. Although the exact effect of eIF-4E phosphorylation is not clearly defined, it may be necessary to increase affinity of eIF-4E for the mRNA cap structure and for eIF-4G.
The principal mechanism utilized in the regulation of eIF-4E activity is through its interaction with a family of binding/repressor proteins termed 4EBPs (4E binding proteins) which are widely distributed in numerous vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. In mammalian cells 3 related 4EBPs have been found where 4EBP1 and 4EBP2 are also identified as PHAS-I and PHAS-II (PHAS refers to properties of heat and acid stability).
Binding of 4E-BPs to eIF-4E does not alter the affinity of eIF-4E for the cap structure but prevents the interaction of eIF-4E with eIF-4G which in turn suppresses the formation of the eIF-4F complex (see Table of Initiation Factors above). The ability of 4EBPs to interact with eIF-4E is controlled via the phosphorylation of specific Ser and Thr residues in 4EBP. When hypophosphorylated, 4EBPs bind with high efficiency to eIF-4E but lose their binding capacity when phosphorylated. Numerous growth and signal transduction stimulating effectors lead to phosphorylation of 4E-BPs just as these same responses can lead to phosphorylation of eIF-4E.
There are several signal transduction pathways whose activations lead to phosphorylation of 4E-BPs. These include pathways that lead to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the Akt Ser/Thr kinase which is also called protein kinase B (PKB) and the FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein/mammalian target of rapamycin (FRAP/mTOR) family of proteins. Akt was originally identified as a virally encoded oncogene and there are now at least three members of the PKB/Akt family identified as Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3. The mammalian TOR proteins (mTOR) are homologs of the yeast TOR proteins that were identified in a screen for yeast mutants resistant to rapamycin. Rapamycin gets its name from the fact that the compound was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus discovered on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). mTOR is a kinase whose catalytic domain shares significant homology with lipid kinases of the PI3K family.
mTOR is actually a component of two distinct multiprotein complexes termed mTORC1 and mTORC2 (mTOR complex 1 and mTOR complex 2). The activity of mTORC1 is sensitive to inhibition by by rapamycin whereas mTORC2 is not. Within the context of mTOR activity, mTORC1 is the central complex as it is responsible for integrating a diverse series of signal transduction cascades initiated by changes in both intra- and extracellular events. Activation and/or regulation of mTORC1 is involved in the control of cell proliferation, survival, metabolism and stress responses. These events can be triggered by nutrient availability, glucose, oxygen, and numerous different types of cell surface receptor activation, each of which eventually impinge on the activity of mTORC1. The components of mammalian mTORC1 include mTOR, Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR), Deptor (DEP domain containing mTOR-interacting protein), mLST8 (mammalian homolog of yeast LST8), and PRAS40 (proline-rich Akt/PKB substrate of 40kDa). Deptor and PRAS40 are inhibitors of mTOR activity within the complex. PRAS40 is a raptor-binding protein that is directly phosphorylated by mTOR, which then prevents PRAS40 inhibition of mTOR.
The components of mammalian mTORC2 include mTOR, Deptor, mLST8, Sin1, Poctor (protein observed with Rictor; also known as PRR5L for proline-rich 5-like protein), and Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR). mTORC2 is involved in the control of the activity of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK). Full activation of Akt/PKB requires the involvement of mTORC2.
One of the major effects of insulin is increased protein synthesis and this effect is elicited, in part, via activation of mTOR function. For more information on the regulation of protein synthesis by insulin see the Insulin Action page.
Targets for mTOR regulation of translational initiation and elongation. AMPK = AMP-activated kinase. TSC1 and TSC2 = Tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressors 1 (hamartin) and 2 (tuberin); Rheb = Ras homolog enriched in brain; PKB/Akt = protein kinase B; 4EBP1 = eIF-4E binding protein; p70S6K = 70kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, also called S6K; eEF2K = eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase.
Regulation of mTOR activity is effected via several mechanisms. Activation of AMPK results in phosphorylation and activation of the TSC1/TSC2 complex which results in inhibition of mTOR. AMPK can also phosphorylate and inhibit mTOR. Conversely, activation of PKB (as in the case of insulin receptor activation) leads to activation of mTOR either by inhibition of the TSC1/TSC2 complex or by phosphorylation and activation of mTOR directly. Activation of mTOR leads to phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4EBP1. The net effect of phosphorylation of 4EBP1 is that it is released from eIF-4E allowing eIF-4E to actively bind eIF-4G and recognize the cap structure of mRNAs. Activated p70S6K phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2K. If eEF2K does not phosphorylate eEF2 then translation elongation proceeds uninhibited.back to the top
As discussed above, the regulation of initiation in eukaryotes is effected by phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eIF-2. In red blood cells there is a need to restrict the translation of the globin mRNAs if there is insufficient levels of heme to generate functional hemoglobin. Thus, when heme levels are low an eIF-2α kinase is active to limit translational initiation until there is adequate heme to generate functional hemoblobin. The regulating eIF-2α kinase in this system is called the heme regulated inhibitor (HRI). HRI is also known as the heme controlled inhibitor (HCI) or heme controlled repressor (HCR). The gene encoding HRI is identified as EIF2AK1. When heme levels rise in the red blood cell eIF-2α is protected from phosphorylation by a specific 67kDa protein that associates with the γ-subunit of eIF-2. Removal of the phosphate from eIF-2α is catalyzed by a specific eIF-2 phosphatase which is unaffected by heme. The presence of HRI was first seen in in vitro translation system derived from lysates of reticulocytes. Other stressors that include heat shock and oxidative stress result in activation of HRI in the red blood cell.
Expression of the EIF2AK1 gene is also important in hepatic tissues. In acute heme-deficient states in the liver HRI is activated leading to reductions in global hepatic translational. Additional activators of hepatic HRI include inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes such as xenobiotics. One important class of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes whose translation is regulated by HRI are the CYP2B family. The CYP2B family includes the phenobarbitol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzymes. Activation of HRI in hepatocytes would normally protect cells by ensuring adequate cellular energy and nutrients during acute heme deficiency. However, in genetically predisposed individuals, such as those with any of several porphyrias, the activation of HRI could lead to global translational arrest of physiologically important enzymes and proteins. This could play a significant role in the severe and often fatal clinical symptoms of the acute hepatic porphyrias.
The regulation of translation by heme controlled inhibitor (HCI). Control of translation by heme is important in erythrocytes since these cells are enucleate and contain primarily globin mRNA. When the level of heme (required for the synthesis of biologically active hemoglobin) is low it would be inefficient for erythrocytes to synthesize globin protein. As the level of heme falls the activity of HCI increases. HCI is a kinase which phosphorylates eIF-2. When phosphorylated, eIF-2 still hydrolyzes bound GTP to GDP and still interacts with eIF-2B (GEF). However, the rate of eIF-2B-mediated GTP exchange is greatly reduced. This renders eIF-2 incapable of being used to form a new ternary initiation complex and translational initiation is reduced. When the level of heme again rises the activity of HCI is reduced and translational initiation is once again active.
Regulation of translation can also be induced in virally infected cells. It would benefit a virally infected cell to turn off protein synthesis to prevent propagation of the viruses. This is accomplished by the induced synthesis of interferons (IFs). There are 3 classes of IFs. The leukocyte or α-IFs, the fibroblast or β-IFs and the lymphocyte or γ-IFs. IFs are induced by dsRNAs and themselves induce a specific kinase termed RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) that phosphorylates the α-subunit of eIF-2 thereby shutting off translation in a similar manner to that of stress and heme control of translation. The PKR gene is identified as EIF2AK2.
Additionally, IFs induce the synthesis of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate, pppA(2'p5'A)n, that activates a pre-existing ribonuclease, RNase L. RNase L degrades all classes of mRNAs thereby shutting off host cell translation.back to the top
Regulation of the translation of certain mRNAs occurs through the action of specific RNA-binding proteins. Protein of this class have been identified that bind to sequences in either the 5' non-translated region (5'-UTR) or 3'-UTR. Two particularly interesting and important regulatory schemes related to iron metabolism encompass RNA binding proteins that bind to either the 5'-UTR of one mRNA or the 3'-UTR of another.
The transferrin receptor is a protein located in the plasma membrane that binds the protein transferrin. Transferrin is the major iron transport protein in the plasma. When iron levels are low the rate of synthesis of the transferrin receptor mRNA increases so that cells can take up more iron. This regulation occurs through the action of an iron response element binding protein (IRBP) that binds to specific iron response elements (IREs) in the 3'-UTR of the transferrin receptor mRNA. These IREs form hair-pin loop structures that are recognized by IRBP. This IRBP is an iron-deficient form of aconitase, the iron-requiring enzyme of the TCA cycle. When iron levels are low, IRBP is free of iron and can therefore, interact with the IREs in the 3'-UTR of the transferrin receptor mRNA. Transferrin receptor mRNA with IRBP bound is stabilized from degradation. Conversely, when iron levels are high, IRBP binds iron then cannot interact with the IREs in the transferrin receptor mRNA. The effect is an increase in degradation of the transferrin receptor mRNA.
A related, but opposite, phenomenon controls the translation of the ferritin mRNA. Ferritin is an iron-binding protein that prevents toxic levels of ionized iron (Fe2+) from building up in cells. The ferritin mRNA has an IRE in its 5'-UTR. As with the transferrin receptor story, when iron levels are high, IRBP cannot bind to the IRE in the 5'-UTR of the ferritin mRNA. This allows the ferritin mRNA to be translated. Conversely, when iron levels are low, the IRBP binds to the IRE in the ferrritin mRNA preventing its translation.
The regulation of translation of the ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNAs by iron. Both mRNAs contain stem-loop structures form an iron response element (IRE) that binds the iron response-element binding protein (IRBP). In the case of ferritin mRNA this IRBP stem-loop is in the 5'–untranslated region, whereas in the transferrin receptor mRNA it is in the 3–untranslated region. When iron levels are low, IRBP interacts with the IRE and exerts the controls discussed. However, when iron levels are low the excess iron is bound by the IRBP which causes it to be released from the mRNA and the opposite effects on translationare exerted.back to the top
Many of the antibiotics utilized for the treatment of bacterial infections as well as certain toxins function through the inhibition of translation. Inhibition can be effected at all stages of translation from initiation to elongation to termination.
inhibits prokaryotic peptidyl transferase
|Streptomycin||inhibits prokaryotic peptide chain initiation, also induces mRNA misreading|
inhibits prokaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the
ribosome small subunit
|Neomycin||similar in activity to streptomycin|
|Erythromycin||inhibits prokaryotic translocation through the ribosome large subunit|
|Fusidic acid||similar to erythromycin only by preventing EFG from dissociating from the large subunit|
|Puromycin||resembles an aminoacyl-tRNA, interferes with peptide transfer resulting in premature termination in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes|
|Diphtheria (diptheria) toxin||
protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae which which
causes diphtheria (diptheria);
catalyzes ADP-ribosylation and inactivation of
eEF-2; eEF-2 contains a modified His residue known as diphthamide (dipthamide), it is this resudue that is the target of
ADP-ribosylated diphthamide (dipthamide) residue
|Ricin||found in castor beans, catalyzes cleavage of the eukaryotic large subunit rRNA|
inhibits eukaryotic peptidyltransferase