References Used in The Medical Biochemistry Page

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Acetylcholine Receptors

Albuquerque, E. X., E. F. Pereira, M. Alkondon and S. W. Rogers (2009). "Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function." Physiol Rev 89(1): 73-120.

Caulfield, M. P. and N. J. Birdsall (1998). "International Union of Pharmacology. XVII. Classification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors." Pharmacol Rev 50(2): 279-290.

Felder, C. C. (1995). "Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: signal transduction through multiple effectors." FASEB J 9(8): 619-625.

Ishii, M. and Y. Kurachi (2006). "Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors." Curr Pharm Des 12(28): 3573-3581.

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Adipose Tissue: WAT and BAT

Ahima, R. S. (2006). "Metabolic actions of adipocyte hormones: focus on adiponectin." Obesity (Silver Spring) 14 Suppl 1: 9S-15S.

Ahmadian, M., et al. (2011). "Desnutrin/ATGL is regulated by AMPK and is required for a brown adipose phenotype." Cell Metab 13(6): 739-748.

Bartelt, A. and J. Heeren (2012). "The holy grail of metabolic disease: brown adipose tissue." Curr Opin Lipidol 23(3): 190-195.

Bordicchia, M., et al.lins (2012). "Cardiac natriuretic peptides act via p38 MAPK to induce the brown fat thermogenic program in mouse and human adipocytes." J Clin Invest 122(3): 1022-1036.

Bostrom, P., et al. (2012). "A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis." Nature 481(7382): 463-468.

Breton, C. (2013). "The hypothalamus-adipose axis is a key target of developmental programming by maternal nutritional manipulation." J Endocrinol 216(2): R19-31.

Cannon, B. and J. Nedergaard (2004). "Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance." Physiol Rev 84(1): 277-359.

Cannon, B. and J. Nedergaard (2008). "Neither Fat nor Flesh." Developmental Biology 454: 947-948.

Cao, H., M. et al. (2013). "Adipocyte lipid chaperone AP2 is a secreted adipokine regulating hepatic glucose production." Cell Metab 17(5): 768-778.

Cao, L., E. Y. et al. (2011). "White to brown fat phenotypic switch induced by genetic and environmental activation of a hypothalamic-adipocyte axis." Cell Metab 14(3): 324-338.

Christiaens, V. and H. R. Lijnen (2010). "Angiogenesis and development of adipose tissue." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 2-9.

Cinti, S. (2012). "The adipose organ at a glance." Dis Model Mech 5(5): 588-594.

Cristancho, A. G. and M. A. Lazar (2011). "Forming functional fat: a growing understanding of adipocyte differentiation." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12(11): 722-734.

Cypess, A. M., et al. (2011). "Insulin/IGF-I regulation of necdin and brown adipocyte differentiation via CREB- and FoxO1-associated pathways." Endocrinology 152(10): 3680-3689.

Deng, Y. and P. E. Scherer (2010). "Adipokines as novel biomarkers and regulators of the metabolic syndrome." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1212: E1-E19.

Derecka, M., A. et al. (2012). "Tyk2 and Stat3 regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and obesity." Cell Metab 16(6): 814-824.

Duncan, R. E., M. Ahmadian, K. Jaworski, E. Sarkadi-Nagy and H. S. Sul (2007). "Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes." Annu Rev Nutr 27: 79-101.

Enerback, S. (2010). "Human brown adipose tissue." Cell Metab 11(4): 248-252.

Galic, S., J. S. Oakhill and G. R. Steinberg (2010). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ." Mol Cell Endocrinol 316(2): 129-139.

Garten, A., S. Petzold, A. Korner, S. Imai and W. Kiess (2009). "Nampt: linking NAD biology, metabolism and cancer." Trends Endocrinol Metab 20(3): 130-138.

Girousse, A. and D. Langin (2012). "Adipocyte lipases and lipid droplet-associated proteins: insight from transgenic mouse models." Int J Obes (Lond) 36(4): 581-594.

Gummesson, A., et al. (2007). "Relations of adipose tissue CIDEA gene expression to basal metabolic rate, energy restriction, and obesity: population-based and dietary intervention studies." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92(12): 4759-4765.

Halberg, N., I. Wernstedt-Asterholm and P. E. Scherer (2008). "The adipocyte as an endocrine cell." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 753-768, x-xi.

Harwood, H. J., Jr. (2012). "The adipocyte as an endocrine organ in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis." Neuropharmacology 63(1): 57-75.

Henry, B. A. and I. J. Clarke (2008). "Adipose tissue hormones and the regulation of food intake." J Neuroendocrinol 20(6): 842-849.

Holland, W. L. and P. E. Scherer (2009). "PAQRs: a counteracting force to ceramides?" Mol Pharmacol 75(4): 740-743.

Hondares, E., et al. (2010). "Hepatic FGF21 expression is induced at birth via PPARalpha in response to milk intake and contributes to thermogenic activation of neonatal brown fat." Cell Metab 11(3): 206-212.

Jamaluddin, M. S., S. M. Weakley, Q. Yao and C. Chen (2012). "Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease." Br J Pharmacol 165(3): 622-632.

Karastergiou, K. and V. Mohamed-Ali (2010). "The autocrine and paracrine roles of adipokines." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 69-78.

Kiefer, F. W., et al. (2012). "Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 regulates a thermogenic program in white adipose tissue." Nat Med 18(6): 918-925.

Kralisch, S. and M. Fasshauer (2013). "Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein: a novel adipokine involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic and vascular disease?" Diabetologia 56(1): 10-21.

Kupchak, B. R., I. Garitaonandia, N. Y. Villa, J. L. Smith and T. J. Lyons (2009). "Antagonism of human adiponectin receptors and their membrane progesterone receptor paralogs by TNFalpha and a ceramidase inhibitor." Biochemistry 48(24): 5504-5506.

Lefterova, M. I. and M. A. Lazar (2009). "New developments in adipogenesis." Trends Endocrinol Metab 20(3): 107-114.

Lin, Z., et al. (2013). "Adiponectin mediates the metabolic effects of FGF21 on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice." Cell Metab 17(5): 779-789.

Liu, J., M. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Y. Cheng, M. Liu, J. Ding, P. E. Scherer, F. Liu and X. Y. Lu (2012). "Adiponectin is critical in determining susceptibility to depressive behaviors and has antidepressant-like activity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(30): 12248-12253.

McManaman, J. L., et al. (2013). "Perilipin-2-null mice are protected against diet-induced obesity, adipose inflammation, and fatty liver disease." J Lipid Res 54(5): 1346-1359.

Musri, M. M., R. Gomis and M. Parrizas (2010). "A chromatin perspective of adipogenesis." Organogenesis 6(1): 15-23.

Rosen, E. D., C. J. Walkey, P. Puigserver and B. M. Spiegelman (2000). "Transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis." Genes Dev 14(11): 1293-1307.

Scherer, P. E. (2006). "Adipose tissue: from lipid storage compartment to endocrine organ." Diabetes 55(6): 1537-1545.

Schwartz, D. R. and M. A. Lazar (2011). "Human resistin: found in translation from mouse to man." Trends Endocrinol Metab 22(7): 259-265.

Seale, P., et al. (2008). "PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch." Nature 454(7207): 961-967.

Smorlesi, A., A. Frontini, A. Giordano and S. Cinti (2012). "The adipose organ: white-brown adipocyte plasticity and metabolic inflammation." Obes Rev 13 Suppl 2: 83-96.

Stanford, K. I., et al. (2013). "Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity." J Clin Invest 123(1): 215-223.

Thompson, B. R., S. Lobo and D. A. Bernlohr (2010). "Fatty acid flux in adipocytes: the in's and out's of fat cell lipid trafficking." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 24-33.

Villarroya, F. (2012). "Irisin, turning up the heat." Cell Metab 15(3): 277-278.

Villarroya, F. and A. Vidal-Puig (2013). "Beyond the sympathetic tone: the new brown fat activators." Cell Metab 17(5): 638-643.

White, U. A. and J. M. Stephens (2010). "Transcriptional factors that promote formation of white adipose tissue." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 10-14.

Wozniak, S. E., L. L. Gee, M. S. Wachtel and E. E. Frezza (2009). "Adipose tissue: the new endocrine organ? A review article." Dig Dis Sci 54(9): 1847-1856.

Wu, J., et al. (2012). "Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human." Cell 150(2): 366-376.

Xiong, Y., et al. (2004). "Short-chain fatty acids stimulate leptin production in adipocytes through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR41." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(4): 1045-1050.

Zhang, H., J. Cui and C. Zhang (2010). "Emerging role of adipokines as mediators in atherosclerosis." World J Cardiol 2(11): 370-376.

Zhang, H. and C. Zhang (2010). "Adipose "talks" to distant organs to regulate insulin sensitivity and vascular function." Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(11): 2071-2076.

Zhang, Y., et al. (2012). "Stromal progenitor cells from endogenous adipose tissue contribute to pericytes and adipocytes that populate the tumor microenvironment." Cancer Res 72(20): 5198-5208.

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Addison Disease

Marzotti, S. and A. Falorni (2004). "Addison's disease." Autoimmunity 37(4): 333-336.

Nieman, L. K. and M. L. Chanco Turner (2006). "Addison's disease." Clin Dermatol 24(4): 276-280.

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Adrenergic Receptors

Beaulieu, J. M. and R. R. Gainetdinov (2011). "The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors." Pharmacol Rev 63(1): 182-217.

Eisenach, J. H. and E. D. Wittwer (2010). "β-Adrenoceptor gene variation and intermediate physiological traits: prediction of distant phenotype." Exp Physiol 95(7): 757-764.

Gyires, K., Z. S. Zadori, T. Torok and P. Matyus (2009). "alpha(2)-Adrenoceptor subtypes-mediated physiological, pharmacological actions." Neurochem Int 55(7): 447-453.

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Agouti-Related Peptide, AgRP

Joly-Amado, A., ey al. (2012). "Hypothalamic AgRP-neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning." EMBO J 31(22): 4276-4288.

Matarese, G., et sl. (2013). "Hunger-promoting hypothalamic neurons modulate effector and regulatory T-cell responses." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(15): 6193-6198.

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Amino Acid Metabolism

Broquist, H. P. (1991). "Lysine-pipecolic acid metabolic relationships in microbes and mammals." Annu Rev Nutr 11: 435-448.

Wang, J., P. Alexander, L. Wu, R. Hammer, O. Cleaver and S. L. McKnight (2009). "Dependence of mouse embryonic stem cells on threonine catabolism." Science 325(5939): 435-439.

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Alessi, D. R., K. Sakamoto and J. R. Bayascas (2006). "LKB1-dependent signaling pathways." Annu Rev Biochem 75: 137-163.

Bright, N. J., C. Thornton and D. Carling (2009). "The regulation and function of mammalian AMPK-related kinases." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 15-26.

Canto, C. and J. Auwerx (2010). "AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream transcriptional pathways." Cell Mol Life Sci 67(20): 3407-3423.

Canto, C., et al. (2009). "AMPK regulates energy expenditure by modulating NAD+ metabolism and SIRT1 activity." Nature 458(7241): 1056-1060.

Cunningham, K. A., Z. Hua, S. Srinivasan, J. Liu, B. H. Lee, R. H. Edwards and K. Ashrafi (2012). "AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans." Cell Metab 16(1): 113-121.

Dagon, Y., E. Hur, B. Zheng, K. Wellenstein, L. C. Cantley and B. B. Kahn (2012). "p70S6 kinase phosphorylates AMPK on serine 491 to mediate leptin's effect on food intake." Cell Metab 16(1): 104-112.

Dzamko, N. L. and G. R. Steinberg (2009). "AMPK-dependent hormonal regulation of whole-body energy metabolism." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 115-127.

Faubert, B., et al. (2013). "AMPK is a negative regulator of the Warburg effect and suppresses tumor growth in vivo." Cell Metab 17(1): 113-124.

Hardie, D. G. (2005). "New roles for the LKB1-->AMPK pathway." Curr Opin Cell Biol 17(2): 167-173.

Hawley, S. A., et al. (2012). "The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase." Science 336(6083): 918-922.

Hawley, S. A., et al. (2010). "Use of cells expressing gamma subunit variants to identify diverse mechanisms of AMPK activation." Cell Metab 11(6): 554-565.

Kurth-Kraczek, E. J., M. F. Hirshman, L. J. Goodyear and W. W. Winder (1999). "5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation causes GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle." Diabetes 48(8): 1667-1671.

Lemieux, K., D. Konrad, A. Klip and A. Marette (2003). "The AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR does not induce GLUT4 translocation to transverse tubules but stimulates glucose uptake and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases alpha and beta in skeletal muscle." FASEB J 17(12): 1658-1665.

Lim, C. T., B. Kola and M. Korbonits (2010). "AMPK as a mediator of hormonal signalling." J Mol Endocrinol 44(2): 87-97.

McCrimmon, R. J., et al. (2008). "Key role for AMP-activated protein kinase in the ventromedial hypothalamus in regulating counterregulatory hormone responses to acute hypoglycemia." Diabetes 57(2): 444-450.

Namkoong, C., et al. (2005). "Enhanced hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity contributes to hyperphagia in diabetic rats." Diabetes 54(1): 63-68.

Oakhill, J. S., J. W. Scott and B. E. Kemp (2009). "Structure and function of AMP-activated protein kinase." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 3-14.

Price, N. L., et al. (2012). "SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function." Cell Metab 15(5): 675-690.

Rojas, J., N. Arraiz, M. Aguirre, M. Velasco and V. Bermudez (2011). "AMPK as Target for Intervention in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity." J Obes 2011: 252817.

Rutter, G. A. and I. Leclerc (2009). "The AMP-regulated kinase family: enigmatic targets for diabetes therapy." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 41-49.

Schneeberger, M. and M. Claret (2012). "Recent Insights into the Role of Hypothalamic AMPK Signaling Cascade upon Metabolic Control." Front Neurosci 6: 185.

Shen, Z., X. Liang, C. Q. Rogers, D. Rideout and M. You (2010). "Involvement of adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK signaling in the protective action of rosiglitazone against alcoholic fatty liver in mice." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298(3): G364-374.

Thomson, D. M. and W. W. Winder (2009). "AMP-activated protein kinase control of fat metabolism in skeletal muscle." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 147-154.

Viollet, B., B. Guigas, J. Leclerc, S. Hebrard, L. Lantier, R. Mounier, F. Andreelli and M. Foretz (2009). "AMP-activated protein kinase in the regulation of hepatic energy metabolism: from physiology to therapeutic perspectives." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 81-98.

Yang, C. S., C. K. Lam, M. Chari, G. W. Cheung, A. Kokorovic, S. Gao, I. Leclerc, G. A. Rutter and T. K. Lam (2010). "Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase regulates glucose production." Diabetes 59(10): 2435-2443.

Zhang, B. B., G. Zhou and C. Li (2009). "AMPK: an emerging drug target for diabetes and the metabolic syndrome." Cell Metab 9(5): 407-416.

Zhou, G., I. K. Sebhat and B. B. Zhang (2009). "AMPK activators--potential therapeutics for metabolic and other diseases." Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196(1): 175-190.

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Choudhury, J.D., S. Kumar, V. Mayank, J. Mehta, and D. Bardalai (2012). "A review on apoptosis & its different pathway." Inter. J. Biol. Pharmaceut. Res. 3(7): 848-861.

Czabotar, P.E., G. Lessene, A. Strasser, and J.M. Adams (2014). "Control of apoptosis by the BCL-2 protein family: implications for physiology and therapy." Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15: 49-63.

Elmore, S. (2007). "Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death." Toxicol. Pathol. 35(4): 495-516.

Guicciardi, M.E. and G.J. Gores1 (2009). "Life and death by death receptors." FEBS Journal 23(6): 1625-1637.

Otera, H., and K. Mihara (2012). "Mitochondrial Dynamics: Functional Link with Apoptosis." International J Cell Biol. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Sano, R., and J.C. Reed (2013). "ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms." Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1833: 3460-3470

Tabas, I., and D. Ron (2011). "Integrating the mechanisms of apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress." Nature Cell Biol. 13(3): 184-190

Voskoboinik, I. and J.A. Trapani (2013). "Perforinopathy: a spectrum of human immune disease caused by defective perforin delivery or function." Front. Immunol. 4: Article 441

Voskoboinik, I., J.C. Whisstock, and J.A. Trapani (2015). "Perforin and granzymes: function, dysfunction and human pathology." Nature Rev. Immunol. 15: 388-400

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Gallagher, L.E. Williamson and E.Y.W. Chan (2016). "Advances in Autophagy Regulatory Mechanisms." Cells 5(2): E24.

Kang, R., H.J. Zeh1, M.T. Lotze and D. Tang (2011). "The Beclin 1 network regulates autophagy and apoptosis." Cell Death and Differentiation 18: 571–580.

Kim, B-W., D.H. Kwon and H.K. Song (2016). "Structure biology of selective autophagy receptors." BMB Reports 49(2): 73-80.

May, A.I., R.J. Devenish, and M. Prescott (2012). "The Many Faces of Mitochondrial Autophagy: Making Sense of Contrasting Observations in Recent Research." International J Cell Biol. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Molino, d., N. Zemirli, P. Codogno, and E. Morel (2016). "The journey of the autophagosome through mammalian cell organelles and membranes." J. Mol. Biol. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Pavel, M. and D.C. Rubinsztein (2016). "Mammalian autophagy and the plasma membrane." FEBS Journal Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Suzuki, H., T. Osawa, Y. Fujioka and N.N. Noda (2017). "Structural biology of the core autophagy machinery." Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 43: 10-17.

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Ait-Oufella, H., S. Taleb, Z. Mallat and A. Tedgui (2011). "Recent advances on the role of cytokines in atherosclerosis." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31(5): 969-979.

Campbell, J. H. and G. R. Campbell (1986). "Endothelial cell influences on vascular smooth muscle phenotype." Annu Rev Physiol 48: 295-306.

Fernandez, A. Z., A. L. Siebel and A. El-Osta (2010). "Atherogenic factors and their epigenetic relationships." Int J Vasc Med 2010: 437809.

Galkina, E. and K. Ley (2009). "Immune and inflammatory mechanisms of atherosclerosis (*)." Annu Rev Immunol 27: 165-197.

Hafiane, A. and J. Genest (2013). "HDL, Atherosclerosis, and Emerging Therapies." Cholesterol 2013: 891403.

Hansson, G. K., A. K. Robertson and C. Soderberg-Naucler (2006). "Inflammation and atherosclerosis." Annu Rev Pathol 1: 297-329.

Kurakula, K., A. A. Hamers, V. de Waard and C. J. de Vries (2013). "Nuclear Receptors in atherosclerosis: a superfamily with many 'Goodfellas'." Mol Cell Endocrinol 368(1-2): 71-84.

Libby, P. (2002). "Inflammation and Atherosclerosis." Circulation 105(9): 1135-1143.

Lusis, A. J., R. Mar and P. Pajukanta (2004). "Genetics of atherosclerosis." Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 5: 189-218.

Matsumoto, T., T. Kobayashi and K. Kamata (2007). "Role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in atherosclerosis." Curr Med Chem 14(30): 3209-3220.

Moore, K. J. and I. Tabas (2011). "Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis." Cell 145(3): 341-355.

Nagy, Z. S., Z. Czimmerer and L. Nagy (2013). "Nuclear receptor mediated mechanisms of macrophage cholesterol metabolism." Mol Cell Endocrinol 368(1-2): 85-98.

Ross, R. (1995). "Cell biology of atherosclerosis." Annu Rev Physiol 57: 791-804.

Woollard, K. J. (2013). "Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis." Clin Sci (Lond) 125(5): 221-235.

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Blood Coagulation

Bonnefoy, A., R. Moura and M. F. Hoylaerts (2008). "The evolving role of thrombospondin-1 in hemostasis and vascular biology." Cell Mol Life Sci 65(5): 713-727.

Bussel, J. B., T. J. Kunicki and A. D. Michelson (2000). "Platelets: New Understanding of Platelet Glycoproteins and Their Role in Disease." Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program: 222-240.

Griffin, J. H., J. A. Fernandez, A. J. Gale and L. O. Mosnier (2007). "Activated protein C." J Thromb Haemost 5 Suppl 1: 73-80.

Isenberg, J. S., G. Martin-Manso, J. B. Maxhimer and D. D. Roberts (2009). "Regulation of nitric oxide signalling by thrombospondin 1: implications for anti-angiogenic therapies." Nat Rev Cancer 9(3): 182-194.

Li, Z., M. K. Delaney, K. A. O'Brien and X. Du (2010). "Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30(12): 2341-2349.

Marcus, A. J., M. J. Broekman and D. J. Pinsky (2002). "COX inhibitors and thromboregulation." N Engl J Med 347(13): 1025-1026.

Sellers, M. B., P. Tricoci and R. A. Harrington (2009). "A new generation of antiplatelet agents." Curr Opin Cardiol 24(4): 307-312.

Williams, M. S., et al. (2010). "Genetic regulation of platelet receptor expression and function: application in clinical practice and drug development." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30(12): 2372-2384.

Zimman, A. and E. A. Podrez (2010). "Regulation of platelet function by class B scavenger receptors in hyperlipidemia." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30(12): 2350-2356.

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Calcitonin and Calcitonin-Receptor Like

Barwell, J., J. J. Gingell, H. A. Watkins, J. K. Archbold, D. R. Poyner and D. L. Hay (2012). "Calcitonin and calcitonin receptor-like receptors: common themes with family B GPCRs?" Br J Pharmacol 166(1): 51-65.

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Carbonic Anhydrases

Aggarwal, M., C. D. Boone, B. Kondeti and R. McKenna (2013). "Structural annotation of human carbonic anhydrases." J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 28(2): 267-277.

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Chavez, J. A. and S. A. Summers (2012). "A ceramide-centric view of insulin resistance." Cell Metab 15(5): 585-594.

Hannun, Y. A. and L. M. Obeid (2002). "The Ceramide-centric universe of lipid-mediated cell regulation: stress encounters of the lipid kind." J Biol Chem 277(29): 25847-25850.

Hannun, Y. A. and L. M. Obeid (2011). "Many ceramides." J Biol Chem 286(32): 27855-27862.

Kawamori, T. (2010). "Animal models for studying the pathophysiology of ceramide." Adv Exp Med Biol 688: 109-117.

Levy, M. and A. H. Futerman (2010). "Mammalian ceramide synthases." IUBMB Life 62(5): 347-356.

Park, J. H. and E. H. Schuchman (2006). "Acid ceramidase and human disease." Biochim Biophys Acta 1758(12): 2133-2138.

Stiban, J., R. Tidhar and A. H. Futerman (2010). "Ceramide synthases: roles in cell physiology and signaling." Adv Exp Med Biol 688: 60-71.

Zeidan, Y. H. and Y. A. Hannun (2010). "The acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide pathway: biomedical significance and mechanisms of regulation." Curr Mol Med 10(5): 454-466.

Zheng, W., et al. (2006). "Ceramides and other bioactive sphingolipid backbones in health and disease: lipidomic analysis, metabolism and roles in membrane structure, dynamics, signaling and autophagy." Biochim Biophys Acta 1758(12): 1864-1884.

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Cholecystokinin: CCK

Cheung, G. W., A. Kokorovic, C. K. Lam, M. Chari and T. K. Lam (2009). "Intestinal cholecystokinin controls glucose production through a neuronal network." Cell Metab 10(2): 99-109.

Guilloteau, P., V. Le Meuth-Metzinger, J. Morisset and R. Zabielski (2006). "Gastrin, cholecystokinin and gastrointestinal tract functions in mammals." Nutr Res Rev 19(2): 254-283.

Rehfeld, J. F., L. Friis-Hansen, J. P. Goetze and T. V. Hansen (2007). "The biology of cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides." Curr Top Med Chem 7(12): 1154-1165.

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Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism

Bang, C. and T. Thum (2012). "Novel non-coding RNA-based therapeutic approaches to prevent statin-induced liver damage." EMBO Mol Med 4(9): 863-865.

Bartz, F., et al. (2009). "Identification of cholesterol-regulating genes by targeted RNAi screening." Cell Metab 10(1): 63-75.

Brufau, G., A. K. Groen and F. Kuipers (2011). "Reverse cholesterol transport revisited: contribution of biliary versus intestinal cholesterol excretion." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31(8): 1726-1733.

Davit-Spraul, A., E. Gonzales, C. Baussan and E. Jacquemin (2010). "The spectrum of liver diseases related to ABCB4 gene mutations: pathophysiology and clinical aspects." Semin Liver Dis 30(2): 134-146.

de Aguiar Vallim, T. Q., E. J. Tarling and P. A. Edwards (2013). "Pleiotropic roles of bile acids in metabolism." Cell Metab 17(5): 657-669.

Fiorucci, S., A. Mencarelli, G. Palladino and S. Cipriani (2009). "Bile-acid-activated receptors: targeting TGR5 and farnesoid-X-receptor in lipid and glucose disorders." Trends Pharmacol Sci 30(11): 570-580.

Gibbons, G. F. (2002). "The role of cytochrome P450 in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis." Lipids 37(12): 1163-1170.

Heubi, J. E., K. D. Setchell and K. E. Bove (2007). "Inborn errors of bile acid metabolism." Semin Liver Dis 27(3): 282-294.

Hylemon, P. B., H. Zhou, W. M. Pandak, S. Ren, G. Gil and P. Dent (2009). "Bile acids as regulatory molecules." J Lipid Res 50(8): 1509-1520.

Kahn, M. L. and D. J. Rader (2013). "Lymphatics as a new active player in reverse cholesterol transport." Cell Metab 17(5): 627-628.

Lam, P., C. J. Soroka and J. L. Boyer (2010). "The bile salt export pump: clinical and experimental aspects of genetic and acquired cholestatic liver disease." Semin Liver Dis 30(2): 125-133.

Lefebvre, P., B. Cariou, F. Lien, F. Kuipers and B. Staels (2009). "Role of bile acids and bile acid receptors in metabolic regulation." Physiol Rev 89(1): 147-191.

Luoma, P. V. (2007). "Cytochrome P450--physiological key factor against cholesterol accumulation and the atherosclerotic vascular process." Ann Med 39(5): 359-370.

Min, H. K., et al. (2012). "Increased hepatic synthesis and dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism is associated with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." Cell Metab 15(5): 665-674.

Modica, S., E. Bellafante and A. Moschetta (2009). "Master regulation of bile acid and xenobiotic metabolism via the FXR, PXR and CAR trio." Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 14: 4719-4745.

Nguyen, A. and B. Bouscarel (2008). "Bile acids and signal transduction: role in glucose homeostasis." Cell Signal 20(12): 2180-2197.

Russell, D. W. (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis." Annu Rev Biochem 72: 137-174.

Scotti, E., F. Gilardi, C. Godio, E. Gers, J. Krneta, N. Mitro, E. De Fabiani, D. Caruso and M. Crestani (2007). "Bile acids and their signaling pathways: eclectic regulators of diverse cellular functions." Cell Mol Life Sci 64(19-20): 2477-2491.

Smith, Z., D. Ryerson and J. K. Kemper (2013). "Epigenomic regulation of bile acid metabolism: emerging role of transcriptional cofactors." Mol Cell Endocrinol 368(1-2): 59-70.

Sundaram, S. S., K. E. Bove, M. A. Lovell and R. J. Sokol (2008). "Mechanisms of disease: Inborn errors of bile acid synthesis." Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 5(8): 456-468.

Wagner, M., G. Zollner and M. Trauner (2010). "Nuclear receptor regulation of the adaptive response of bile acid transporters in cholestasis." Semin Liver Dis 30(2): 160-177.

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Dentin, R., D. Langin and C. Postic (2012). "Hidden variant of ChREBP in fat links lipogenesis to insulin sensitivity." Cell Metab 15(6): 795-797.

Herman, M. A., O. D. Peroni, J. Villoria, M. R. Schon, N. A. Abumrad, M. Bluher, S. Klein and B. B. Kahn (2012). "A novel ChREBP isoform in adipose tissue regulates systemic glucose metabolism." Nature 484(7394): 333-338.

Li, M. V. (2006). "Glucose-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation by an Evolutionarily Conserved Glucose-Sensing Module." Diabetes 55(5): 1179-1189.

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Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript: CART

Rogge, G., D. Jones, G. W. Hubert, Y. Lin and M. J. Kuhar (2008). "CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions." Nat Rev Neurosci 9(10): 747-758.

Vicentic, A. and D. C. Jones (2007). "The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320(2): 499-506.

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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasis (CAH)

Nimkarn, S., K. Lin-Su and M. I. New (2009). "Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 38(4): 699-718.

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Cushing Syndrome / Disease

Hatipoglu, B. A. (2012). "Cushing's syndrome." J Surg Oncol 106(5): 565-571.

Prague, J. K., S. May and B. C. Whitelaw (2013). "Cushing's syndrome." BMJ 346: f945.

Shibli-Rahhal, A., M. Van Beek and J. A. Schlechte (2006). "Cushing's syndrome." Clin Dermatol 24(4): 260-265.

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Chillaron, J., M. Font-Llitjos, J. Fort, A. Zorzano, D. S. Goldfarb, V. Nunes and M. Palacin (2010). "Pathophysiology and treatment of cystinuria." Nat Rev Nephrol 6(7): 424-434.

Eggermann, T., A. Venghaus and K. Zerres (2012). "Cystinuria: an inborn cause of urolithiasis." Orphanet J Rare Dis 7: 19.

Sumorok, N. and D. S. Goldfarb (2013). "Update on cystinuria." Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 22(4): 427-431.

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Billings, L. K. and J. C. Florez (2010). "The genetics of type 2 diabetes: what have we learned from GWAS?" Ann N Y Acad Sci 1212: 59-77.

Creager, M. A., T. F. Luscher, F. Cosentino and J. A. Beckman (2003). "Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part I." Circulation 108(12): 1527-1532.

Doria, A., M. E. Patti and C. R. Kahn (2008). "The emerging genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes." Cell Metab 8(3): 186-200.

Kliewer, S. A. and D. J. Mangelsdorf (2010). "Fibroblast growth factor 21: from pharmacology to physiology." Am J Clin Nutr 91(1): 254S-257S.

Luscher, T. F., M. A. Creager, J. A. Beckman and F. Cosentino (2003). "Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part II." Circulation 108(13): 1655-1661.

Trachtenbarg, D. E. (2005). "Diabetic ketoacidosis." Am Fam Physician 71(9): 1705-1714.

Wang, C. H., C. C. Wang and Y. H. Wei (2010). "Mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin insensitivity: implication of mitochondrial role in type 2 diabetes." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1201: 157-165.

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Diabetes and Insulin

Akerfeldt, M. C. and D. R. Laybutt (2011). "Inhibition of Id1 augments insulin secretion and protects against high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance." Diabetes 60(10): 2506-2514.

Amori, R. E., J. Lau and A. G. Pittas (2007). "Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis." JAMA 298(2): 194-206.

Asmar, M. and J. J. Holst (2010). "Glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: new advances." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17(1): 57-62.

Bailey, C. J. (2011). "Renal glucose reabsorption inhibitors to treat diabetes." Trends Pharmacol Sci 32(2): 63-71.

Bouzakri, K., et al. (2008). "Malonyl CoenzymeA decarboxylase regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle." Diabetes 57(6): 1508-1516.

Caton, P. W., et al. (2010). "Metformin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through induction of SIRT1 and GCN5." J Endocrinol 205(1): 97-106.

Chen, H., et al. (2011). "PDGF signalling controls age-dependent proliferation in pancreatic beta-cells." Nature 478(7369): 349-355.

De Beer, K., et al. (2008). "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome - clinical guidelines." Nurs Crit Care 13(1): 5-11.

Eizirik, D. L., A. K. Cardozo and M. Cnop (2008). "The role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus." Endocr Rev 29(1): 42-61.

Fullerton, M. D. and G. R. Steinberg (2010). "SIRT1 takes a backseat to AMPK in the regulation of insulin sensitivity by resveratrol." Diabetes 59(3): 551-553.

Greeley, S. A., S. E. Tucker, H. I. Worrell, K. B. Skowron, G. I. Bell and L. H. Philipson (2010). "Update in neonatal diabetes." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17(1): 13-19.

Herranz, P., R. de Lucas, L. Perez-Espana and M. Mayor (2008). "Lipodystrophy syndromes." Dermatol Clin 26(4): 569-578, ix.

Hojlund, K., M. Mogensen, K. Sahlin and H. Beck-Nielsen (2008). "Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and obesity." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 713-731, x.

Holst, J. J., T. Vilsboll and C. F. Deacon (2009). "The incretin system and its role in type 2 diabetes mellitus." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 127-136.

Jin, T. (2008). "Mechanisms underlying proglucagon gene expression." J Endocrinol 198(1): 17-28.

Johansson, B. B., et al. (2011). "Diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction due to mutations in the carboxyl ester lipase gene-maturity onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY): a protein misfolding disease." J Biol Chem 286(40): 34593-34605.

Kapahi, P., D. Chen, A. N. Rogers, S. D. Katewa, P. W. Li, E. L. Thomas and L. Kockel (2010). "With TOR, less is more: a key role for the conserved nutrient-sensing TOR pathway in aging." Cell Metab 11(6): 453-465.

Kelly, M. A. (2003). "Molecular aspects of type 1 diabetes." Molecular Pathology 56(1): 1-10.

Laffel, L. (1999). "Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes." Diabetes Metab Res Rev 15(6): 412-426.

Lara-Castro, C. and W. T. Garvey (2008). "Intracellular lipid accumulation in liver and muscle and the insulin resistance syndrome." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(4): 841-856.

Lawson, M. A. (2009). "Lipoatrophic diabetes: a case report with a brief review of the literature." J Adolesc Health 44(1): 94-95.

Maahs, D. M., N. A. West, J. M. Lawrence and E. J. Mayer-Davis (2010). "Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 39(3): 481-497.

Martin-Montalvo, A., et al. (2013). "Metformin improves healthspan and lifespan in mice." Nat Commun 4: 2192.

Mulder, H. and C. Ling (2009). "Mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic beta-cells in Type 2 diabetes." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 34-40.

Muniyappa, R., M. Iantorno and M. J. Quon (2008). "An integrated view of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 685-711, ix-x.

Ohtsubo, K., M. Z. Chen, J. M. Olefsky and J. D. Marth (2011). "Pathway to diabetes through attenuation of pancreatic beta cell glycosylation and glucose transport." Nat Med 17(9): 1067-1075.

Potts, M. B. and D. A. Lim (2012). "An old drug for new ideas: metformin promotes adult neurogenesis and spatial memory formation." Cell Stem Cell 11(1): 5-6.

Randle, P. J. (1998). "Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates: the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years." Diabetes Metab Rev 14(4): 263-283.

Razani, B., M. V. Chakravarthy and C. F. Semenkovich (2008). "Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 603-621, viii.

Reaven, G. M. (2008). "Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 581-601, vii-viii.

Ridderstrale, M. and L. Groop (2009). "Genetic dissection of type 2 diabetes." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 10-17.

Rubio-Cabezas, O., T. Klupa, M. T. Malecki and C. Consortium (2011). "Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus--the importance of diabetes differential diagnosis in neonates and infants." Eur J Clin Invest 41(3): 323-333.

Rutter, G. A. and I. Leclerc (2009). "The AMP-regulated kinase family: enigmatic targets for diabetes therapy." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 41-49.

Scott, A. (2006). "Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic syndrome." Diabet Med 23 Suppl 3: 22-24.

Small, K. S., et al. (2011). "Identification of an imprinted master trans regulator at the KLF14 locus related to multiple metabolic phenotypes." Nat Genet 43(6): 561-564.

Stadinski, B., J. Kappler and G. S. Eisenbarth (2010). "Molecular targeting of islet autoantigens." Immunity 32(4): 446-456.

Steck, A. K. and M. J. Rewers (2011). "Genetics of type 1 diabetes." Clin Chem 57(2): 176-185.

Steck, A. K. and W. E. Winter (2011). "Review on monogenic diabetes." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(4): 252-258.

Takiishi, T., et al. (2012). "Reversal of autoimmune diabetes by restoration of antigen-specific tolerance using genetically modified Lactococcus lactis in mice." J Clin Invest 122(5): 1717-1725.

Todd, J. A. (2010). "Etiology of type 1 diabetes." Immunity 32(4): 457-467.

Um, J. H., et al. (2010). "AMP-activated protein kinase-deficient mice are resistant to the metabolic effects of resveratrol." Diabetes 59(3): 554-563.

Voight, B. F., et al. (2010). "Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis." Nat Genet 42(7): 579-589.

Wang, J., et al. (2012). "Metformin activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation." Cell Stem Cell 11(1): 23-35.

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Dipeptidylpeptidase 4, DPP4

Hildebrandt, M., W. Reutter, P. Arck, M. Rose and B. F. Klapp (2000). "A guardian angel: the involvement of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in psychoneuroendocrine function, nutrition and immune defence." Clin Sci (Lond) 99(2): 93-104.

Matteucci, E. and O. Giampietro (2009). "Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26): knowing the function before inhibiting the enzyme." Curr Med Chem 16(23): 2943-2951.

Ta, N. N., Y. Li, C. A. Schuyler, M. F. Lopes-Virella and Y. Huang (2010). "DPP-4 (CD26) inhibitor alogliptin inhibits TLR4-mediated ERK activation and ERK-dependent MMP-1 expression by U937 histiocytes." Atherosclerosis 213(2): 429-435.

Vora, K. A., G. Porter, R. Peng, Y. Cui, K. Pryor, G. Eiermann and D. M. Zaller (2009). "Genetic ablation or pharmacological blockade of dipeptidyl peptidase IV does not impact T cell-dependent immune responses." BMC Immunol 10: 19.

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DNA Metabolism and Chromatin Structure

Autexier, C. and N. F. Lue (2006). "The structure and function of telomerase reverse transcriptase." Annu Rev Biochem 75: 493-517.

Burgers, P. M., et al. (2001). "Eukaryotic DNA polymerases: proposal for a revised nomenclature." J Biol Chem 276(47): 43487-43490.

Cedar, H. and Y. Bergman (2009). "Linking DNA methylation and histone modification: patterns and paradigms." Nat Rev Genet 10(5): 295-304.

Esteller, M. (2007). "Cancer epigenomics: DNA methylomes and histone-modification maps." Nat Rev Genet 8(4): 286-298.

Guo, C., J. N. Kosarek-Stancel, T. S. Tang and E. C. Friedberg (2009). "Y-family DNA polymerases in mammalian cells." Cell Mol Life Sci 66(14): 2363-2381.

Johnson, A. and M. O'Donnell (2005). "Cellular DNA replicases: components and dynamics at the replication fork." Annu Rev Biochem 74: 283-315.

Sancar, A., L. A. Lindsey-Boltz, K. Unsal-Kacmaz and S. Linn (2004). "Molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints." Annu Rev Biochem 73: 39-85.

Smeets, E. E. J., K. Pelc and B. Dan (2011). "Rett Syndrome." Molecular Syndromology 2(3-5): 113-127.

Yamtich, J. and J. B. Sweasy (2010). "DNA polymerase family X: function, structure, and cellular roles." Biochim Biophys Acta 1804(5): 1136-1150.

Zhou, V. W., A. Goren and B. E. Bernstein (2011). "Charting histone modifications and the functional organization of mammalian genomes." Nat Rev Genet 12(1): 7-18.

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Baladi, M. G., L. C. Daws and C. P. France (2012). "You are what you eat: influence of type and amount of food consumed on central dopamine systems and the behavioral effects of direct- and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists." Neuropharmacology 63(1): 76-86.

Narayanan, N. S., D. J. Guarnieri and R. J. DiLeone (2010). "Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding." Front Neuroendocrinol 31(1): 104-112.

Salamone, J. D. and M. Correa (2012). "The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine." Neuron 76(3): 470-485.

Schultz, W. (2007). "Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses." Annu Rev Neurosci 30: 259-288.

Schultz, W. (2010). "Multiple functions of dopamine neurons." F1000 Biol Rep 2: 1-4

van Zessen, R., G. van der Plasse and R. A. Adan (2012). "Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 435-445.

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Bruchas, M. R., B. B. Land and C. Chavkin (2010). "The dynorphin/kappa opioid system as a modulator of stress-induced and pro-addictive behaviors." Brain Res 1314: 44-55.

Knoll, A. T. and W. A. Carlezon, Jr. (2010). "Dynorphin, stress, and depression." Brain Res 1314: 56-73.

Schwarzer, C. (2009). "30 years of dynorphins--new insights on their functions in neuropsychiatric diseases." Pharmacol Ther 123(3): 353-370.

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Bisogno, T., A. Ligresti and V. Di Marzo (2005). "The endocannabinoid signalling system: biochemical aspects." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81(2): 224-238.

Di Marzo, V. (2008). "Targeting the endocannabinoid system: to enhance or reduce?" Nat Rev Drug Discov 7(5): 438-455.

Di Marzo, V. and I. Matias (2005). "Endocannabinoid control of food intake and energy balance." Nat Neurosci 8(5): 585-589.

DiPatrizio, N. V., G. Astarita, G. Schwartz, X. Li and D. Piomelli (2011). "Endocannabinoid signal in the gut controls dietary fat intake." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(31): 12904-12908.

Fowler, C. J., S. Holt, O. Nilsson, K. O. Jonsson, G. Tiger and S. O. Jacobsson (2005). "The endocannabinoid signaling system: pharmacological and therapeutic aspects." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81(2): 248-262.

Gunduz-Cinar, O., et al. (2013). "Convergent translational evidence of a role for anandamide in amygdala-mediated fear extinction, threat processing and stress-reactivity." Mol Psychiatry 18(7): 813-823.

Jung, K. M., et al. (2012). "2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling in forebrain regulates systemic energy metabolism." Cell Metab 15(3): 299-310.

Kirkham, T. C. (2009). "Cannabinoids and appetite: food craving and food pleasure." Int Rev Psychiatry 21(2): 163-171.

Liu, J., L. et al. (2008). "Multiple pathways involved in the biosynthesis of anandamide." Neuropharmacology 54(1): 1-7.

Matias, I. and V. Di Marzo (2007). "Endocannabinoids and the control of energy balance." Trends Endocrinol Metab 18(1): 27-37.

Muccioli, G. G., D. Naslain, F. Backhed, C. S. Reigstad, D. M. Lambert, N. M. Delzenne and P. D. Cani (2010). "The endocannabinoid system links gut microbiota to adipogenesis." Mol Syst Biol 6: 392.

Pacher, P., S. Batkai and G. Kunos (2006). "The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy." Pharmacol Rev 58(3): 389-462.

Pagotto, U., G. Marsicano, D. Cota, B. Lutz and R. Pasquali (2006). "The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance." Endocr Rev 27(1): 73-100.

Pazos, M. R., E. Nunez, C. Benito, R. M. Tolon and J. Romero (2005). "Functional neuroanatomy of the endocannabinoid system." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81(2): 239-247.

Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., I. Del Arco, F. J. Bermudez-Silva, A. Bilbao, A. Cippitelli and M. Navarro (2005). "The endocannabinoid system: physiology and pharmacology." Alcohol Alcohol 40(1): 2-14.

Silvestri, C. and V. Di Marzo (2013). "The endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolic disorders." Cell Metab 17(4): 475-490.

Tam, J., et al. (2012). "Peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonism reduces obesity by reversing leptin resistance." Cell Metab 16(2): 167-179.

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Alfaradhi, M. Z. and S. E. Ozanne (2011). "Developmental programming in response to maternal overnutrition." Front Genet 2: 27.

Berdasco, M. and M. Esteller (2012). "Hot topics in epigenetic mechanisms of aging: 2011." Aging Cell 11(2): 181-186.

Li, X., L. Li, R. Pandey, J. S. Byun, K. Gardner, Z. Qin and Y. Dou (2012). "The histone acetyltransferase MOF is a key regulator of the embryonic stem cell core transcriptional network." Cell Stem Cell 11(2): 163-178.

Lu, C. and C. B. Thompson (2012). "Metabolic regulation of epigenetics." Cell Metab 16(1): 9-17.

Rathmell, J. C. and C. B. Newgard (2009). "Biochemistry. A glucose-to-gene link." Science 324(5930): 1021-1022.

Suzuki, M. M. and A. Bird (2008). "DNA methylation landscapes: provocative insights from epigenomics." Nat Rev Genet 9(6): 465-476.

Symonds, M. E., S. Sebert and H. Budge (2011). "The obesity epidemic: from the environment to epigenetics - not simply a response to dietary manipulation in a thermoneutral environment." Front Genet 2: 24.

Wellen, K. E., G. Hatzivassiliou, U. M. Sachdeva, T. V. Bui, J. R. Cross and C. B. Thompson (2009). "ATP-citrate lyase links cellular metabolism to histone acetylation." Science 324(5930): 1076-1080.

Wutz, A. (2012). "Epigenetic alterations in human pluripotent stem cells: a tale of two cultures." Cell Stem Cell 11(1): 9-15.

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Ethanol Metabolism

Chen, Y. C., G. S. Peng, M. F. Wang, T. P. Tsao and S. J. Yin (2009). "Polymorphism of ethanol-metabolism genes and alcoholism: correlation of allelic variations with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences." Chem Biol Interact 178(1-3): 2-7.

Deng, X. S. and R. A. Deitrich (2007). "Ethanol metabolism and effects: nitric oxide and its interaction." Curr Clin Pharmacol 2(2): 145-153.

Edenberg, H. J. (2007). "The genetics of alcohol metabolism: role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants." Alcohol Res Health 30(1): 5-13.

Fujino, T., J. Kondo, M. Ishikawa, K. Morikawa and T. T. Yamamoto (2001). "Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, a mitochondrial matrix enzyme involved in the oxidation of acetate." J Biol Chem 276(14): 11420-11426.

Hallows, W. C., S. Lee and J. M. Denu (2006). "Sirtuins deacetylate and activate mammalian acetyl-CoA synthetases." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(27): 10230-10235.

Hoog, J. O. and L. J. Ostberg (2011). "Mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases--a comparative investigation at gene and protein levels." Chem Biol Interact 191(1-3): 2-7.

Kavanagh, K. L., H. Jornvall, B. Persson and U. Oppermann (2008). "Medium- and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene and protein families : the SDR superfamily: functional and structural diversity within a family of metabolic and regulatory enzymes." Cell Mol Life Sci 65(24): 3895-3906.

Knowles, S. E., I. G. Jarrett, O. H. Filsell and F. J. Ballard (1974). "Production and utilization of acetate in mammals." Biochem J 142(2): 401-411.

Lieber, C. S. (1999). "Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS): the first 30 years (1968-1998)--a review." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23(6): 991-1007.

Lieber, C. S. (2004). "The discovery of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and its physiologic and pathologic role." Drug Metab Rev 36(3-4): 511-529.

Luong, A., V. C. Hannah, M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein (2000). "Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins." J Biol Chem 275(34): 26458-26466.

Nagy, L. E. (2004). "Molecular aspects of alcohol metabolism: transcription factors involved in early ethanol-induced liver injury." Annu Rev Nutr 24: 55-78.

Persson, B., J. Hedlund and H. Jornvall (2008). "Medium- and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene and protein families : the MDR superfamily." Cell Mol Life Sci 65(24): 3879-3894.

Woodnutt, G. and D. S. Parker (1986). "Acetate metabolism by tissues of the rabbit." Comp Biochem Physiol B 85(2): 487-490.

You, M. and D. W. Crabb (2004). "Recent advances in alcoholic liver disease II. Minireview: molecular mechanisms of alcoholic fatty liver." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287(1): G1-6.

Zakhari, S. (2006). "Overview: how is alcohol metabolized by the body?" Alcohol Res Health 29(4): 245-254.

Zong, H., M. Armoni, C. Harel, E. Karnieli and J. E. Pessin (2012). "Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 knockout mice are protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302(5): E532-539.

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Extracellular Matrix: ECM

Adams, J. C. (2001). "Thrombospondins: multifunctional regulators of cell interactions." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17: 25-51

Buck, C. A. and A. F. Horwitz (1987). "Cell surface receptors for extracellular matrix molecules." Annu Rev Cell Biol 3: 179-205

Bulow, H. E. and O. Hobert (2006). "The molecular diversity of glycosaminoglycans shapes animal development." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 22: 375-407

Couchman, J. R. (2010). "Transmembrane signaling proteoglycans." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 26: 89-114

Dudhia, J. (2005). "Aggrecan, aging and assembly in articular cartilage." Cell Mol Life Sci 62(19-20): 2241-2256

Erickson, H. P. (2002). "Stretching fibronectin." J Muscle Res Cell Motil 23(5-6): 575-580

Li, B. and V. Daggett (2002). "Molecular basis for the extensibility of elastin." J Muscle Res Cell Motil 23(5-6): 561-573

Luo, B. H., C. V. Carman and T. A. Springer (2007). "Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling." Annu Rev Immunol 25: 619-647

McDonald, J. A. (1988). "Extracellular matrix assembly." Annu Rev Cell Biol 4: 183-207

McEver, R. P. and C. Zhu (2010). "Rolling cell adhesion." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 26: 363-396

Robert, L. (2002). "Elastin, past, present and future." Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(8): 503-511

Rosenbloom, J., W. R. Abrams and R. Mecham (1993). "Extracellular matrix 4: the elastic fiber." FASEB J 7(13): 1208-1218

Sasisekharan, R., R. Raman and V. Prabhakar (2006). "Glycomics approach to structure-function relationships of glycosaminoglycans." Annu Rev Biomed Eng 8: 181-231

Singh, P., C. Carraher and J. E. Schwarzbauer (2010). "Assembly of fibronectin extracellular matrix." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 26: 397-419

Urry, D. W. and T. M. Parker (2002). "Mechanics of elastin: molecular mechanism of biological elasticity and its relationship to contraction." J Muscle Res Cell Motil 23(5-6): 543-559

Wheelock, M. J. and K. R. Johnson (2003). "Cadherins as modulators of cellular phenotype." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19: 207-235.

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Farnesoid X Receptors, FXR

Caron, S., B. Cariou and B. Staels (2006). "FXR: More than a bile acid receptor?" Endocrinology 147(9): 4022-4024.

Kuipers, F., T. Claudel, E. Sturm and B. Staels (2004). "The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) as modulator of bile acid metabolism." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 5(4): 319-326.

Matsubara, T., F. Li and F. J. Gonzalez (2013). "FXR signaling in the enterohepatic system." Mol Cell Endocrinol 368(1-2): 17-29.

Yu, C., F. Wang, M. Kan, C. Jin, R. B. Jones, M. Weinstein, C. X. Deng and W. L. McKeehan (2000). "Elevated cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis in mice lacking membrane tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR4." J Biol Chem 275(20): 15482-15489.

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Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

Moulle, V. S., C. Cansell, S. Luquet and C. Cruciani-Guglielmacci (2012). "The multiple roles of fatty acid handling proteins in brain." Front Physiol 3: 385.

Smathers, R. L. and D. R. Petersen (2011). "The human fatty acid-binding protein family: evolutionary divergences and functions." Hum Genomics 5(3): 170-191.

Storch, J. and A. E. Thumser (2010). "Tissue-specific functions in the fatty acid-binding protein family." J Biol Chem 285(43): 32679-32683.

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Fatty Acid Oxidation

Dhar, M., D. W. Sepkovic, V. Hirani, R. P. Magnusson and J. M. Lasker (2008). "Omega oxidation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids by the human CYP4F gene subfamily enzyme CYP4F11." J Lipid Res 49(3): 612-624.

Houten, S. M. and R. J. Wanders (2010). "A general introduction to the biochemistry of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation." J Inherit Metab Dis 33(5): 469-477.

Nakano, M., E. J. Kelly and A. E. Rettie (2009). "Expression and characterization of CYP4V2 as a fatty acid omega-hydroxylase." Drug Metab Dispos 37(11): 2119-2122.

Sanders, R. J., R. Ofman, F. Valianpour, S. Kemp and R. J. Wanders (2005). "Evidence for two enzymatic pathways for omega-oxidation of docosanoic acid in rat liver microsomes." J Lipid Res 46(5): 1001-1008.

Wanders, R. J., J. Komen and S. Kemp (2011). "Fatty acid omega-oxidation as a rescue pathway for fatty acid oxidation disorders in humans." FEBS J 278(2): 182-194.

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Fatty Acid Synthesis

Das, U. N. (2005). "A defect in the activity of Delta6 and Delta5 desaturases may be a factor predisposing to the development of insulin resistance syndrome." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72(5): 343-350.

Das, U. N. (2007). "A defect in the activity of Delta6 and Delta5 desaturases may be a factor in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76(5): 251-268.

Flowers, M. T. and J. M. Ntambi (2008). "Role of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase in regulating lipid metabolism." Curr Opin Lipidol 19(3): 248-256.

Landree, L. E., A. L. Hanlon, D. W. Strong, G. Rumbaugh, I. M. Miller, J. N. Thupari, E. C. Connolly, R. L. Huganir, C. Richardson, L. A. Witters, F. P. Kuhajda and G. V. Ronnett (2004). "C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, modulates AMP-activated protein kinase to alter neuronal energy metabolism." J Biol Chem 279(5): 3817-3827.

Lodhi, I. J., L. Yin, A. P. Jensen-Urstad, K. Funai, T. Coleman, J. H. Baird, M. K. El Ramahi, B. Razani, H. Song, F. Fu-Hsu, J. Turk and C. F. Semenkovich (2012). "Inhibiting adipose tissue lipogenesis reprograms thermogenesis and PPARgamma activation to decrease diet-induced obesity." Cell Metab 16(2): 189-201.

Nakamura, M. T. and T. Y. Nara (2004). "Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases." Annu Rev Nutr 24: 345-376.

Olson, D. P., T. Pulinilkunnil, G. W. Cline, G. I. Shulman and B. B. Lowell (2010). "Gene knockout of Acc2 has little effect on body weight, fat mass, or food intake." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(16): 7598-7603.

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Fatty Acid Transporters

Chabowski, A., J. Gorski, J. F. Glatz, P. L. JJ and A. Bonen (2008). "Protein-mediated Fatty Acid Uptake in the Heart." Curr Cardiol Rev 4(1): 12-21.

Glatz, J. F., J. J. Luiken and A. Bonen (2010). "Membrane fatty acid transporters as regulators of lipid metabolism: implications for metabolic disease." Physiol Rev 90(1): 367-417.

Koonen, D. P., J. F. Glatz, A. Bonen and J. J. Luiken (2005). "Long-chain fatty acid uptake and FAT/CD36 translocation in heart and skeletal muscle." Biochim Biophys Acta 1736(3): 163-180.

Mitchell, R. W. and G. M. Hatch (2011). "Fatty acid transport into the brain: of fatty acid fables and lipid tails." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85(5): 293-302.

Schwenk, R. W., G. P. Holloway, J. J. Luiken, A. Bonen and J. F. Glatz (2010). "Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82(4-6): 149-154.

Stahl, A., R. E. Gimeno, L. A. Tartaglia and H. F. Lodish (2001). "Fatty acid transport proteins: a current view of a growing family." Trends Endocrinol Metab 12(6): 266-273.

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Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF) and FGF Receptors (FGFR)

Beenken, A. and M. Mohammadi (2009). "The FGF family: biology, pathophysiology and therapy." Nat Rev Drug Discov 8(3): 235-253.

Dutchak, P. A., et al. (2012). "Fibroblast growth factor-21 regulates PPARgamma activity and the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones." Cell 148(3): 556-567.

Fu, T., et al. (2012). "Aberrantly elevated microRNA-34a in obesity attenuates hepatic responses to FGF19 by targeting a membrane coreceptor beta-Klotho." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(40): 16137-16142.

Fukumoto, S. (2008). "Actions and mode of actions of FGF19 subfamily members." Endocr J 55(1): 23-31.

Galman, C., et al. (2008). "The circulating metabolic regulator FGF21 is induced by prolonged fasting and PPARalpha activation in man." Cell Metab 8(2): 169-174.

Kharitonenkov, A. (2009). "FGFs and metabolism." Curr Opin Pharmacol 9(6): 805-810.

Qiang, L. and D. Accili (2012). "FGF21 and the second coming of PPARgamma." Cell 148(3): 397-398.

Ryan, K. K., R. Kohli, R. Gutierrez-Aguilar, S. G. Gaitonde, S. C. Woods and R. J. Seeley (2013). "Fibroblast growth factor-19 action in the brain reduces food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance in male rats." Endocrinology 154(1): 9-15.

Wu, X. and Y. Li (2009). "Role of FGF19 induced FGFR4 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis." Aging 1(12): 1023-1027.

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Fructose Metabolism

Ali, M., P. Rellos and T. M. Cox (1998). "Hereditary fructose intolerance." J Med Genet 35(5): 353-365.

Bouteldja, N. and D. J. Timson (2010). "The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance." J Inherit Metab Dis 33(2): 105-112.

Cha, S. H., M. Wolfgang, Y. Tokutake, S. Chohnan and M. D. Lane (2008). "Differential effects of central fructose and glucose on hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and food intake." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(44): 16871-16875.

Hayward, B. E. and D. T. Bonthron (1998). "Structure and alternative splicing of the ketohexokinase gene." Eur J Biochem 257(1): 85-91.

Ishimoto, T., et al. (2012). "Opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in mice." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(11): 4320-4325.

Johnson, R. J., et al. (2009). "Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?" Endocr Rev 30(1): 96-116.

Katzen, H. M. and R. T. Schimke (1965). "Multiple forms of hexokinase in the rat: tissue distribution, age dependency, and properties." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 54(4): 1218-1225.

Kavanagh, K., A. T. Wylie, K. L. Tucker, T. J. Hamp, R. Z. Gharaibeh, A. A. Fodor and J. M. Cullen (2013). "Dietary fructose induces endotoxemia and hepatic injury in calorically controlled primates." Am J Clin Nutr 98(2): 349-357.

Lane, M. D. and S. H. Cha (2009). "Effect of glucose and fructose on food intake via malonyl-CoA signaling in the brain." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 382(1): 1-5.

Nagai, Y., et al. (2009). "The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 beta in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced insulin resistance." Cell Metab 9(3): 252-264.

Nakagawa, T., et al. (2006). "A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome." Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290(3): F625-631.

Perez-Pozo, S. E., J. Schold, T. Nakagawa, L. G. Sanchez-Lozada, R. J. Johnson and J. L. Lillo (2010). "Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response." Int J Obes (Lond) 34(3): 454-461.

Ritov, V. B. and D. E. Kelley (2001). "Hexokinase isozyme distribution in human skeletal muscle." Diabetes 50(6): 1253-1262.

Samuel, V. T. (2011). "Fructose induced lipogenesis: from sugar to fat to insulin resistance." Trends Endocrinol Metab 22(2): 60-65.

Shapiro, A., W. Mu, C. Roncal, K. Y. Cheng, R. J. Johnson and P. J. Scarpace (2008). "Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295(5): R1370-1375.

Stanhope, K. L., et al. (2009). "Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans." J Clin Invest 119(5): 1322-1334.

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G-Proteins and G-Protein Coupled Receptors

Archbold, J. K., J. U. Flanagan, H. A. Watkins, J. J. Gingell and D. L. Hay (2011). "Structural insights into RAMP modification of secretin family G protein-coupled receptors: implications for drug development." Trends Pharmacol Sci 32(10): 591-600.

Breyer, R. M., C. K. Bagdassarian, S. A. Myers and M. D. Breyer (2001). "Prostanoid receptors: subtypes and signaling." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 41: 661-690.

Choi, J. W.,et al. (2010). "LPA receptors: subtypes and biological actions." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 50: 157-186.

Davenport, A. P., et al. (2013). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXVIII. G protein-coupled receptor list: recommendations for new pairings with cognate ligands." Pharmacol Rev 65(3): 967-986.

De Vries, L., B. Zheng, T. Fischer, E. Elenko and M. G. Farquhar (2000). "The regulator of G protein signaling family." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 40: 235-271.

Defea, K. (2008). "Beta-arrestins and heterotrimeric G-proteins: collaborators and competitors in signal transduction." Br J Pharmacol 153 Suppl 1: S298-309.

DeWire, S. M., S. Ahn, R. J. Lefkowitz and S. K. Shenoy (2007). "β-Arrestins and Cell Signaling." Annual Review of Physiology 69(1): 483-510.

Dupre, D. J., M. Robitaille, R. V. Rebois and T. E. Hebert (2009). "The role of Gbetagamma subunits in the organization, assembly, and function of GPCR signaling complexes." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 49: 31-56.

Hamm, H. E. and A. Gilchrist (1996). "Heterotrimeric G proteins." Curr Opin Cell Biol 8(2): 189-196.

Khan, S. M., R. Sleno, S. Gora, P. Zylbergold, J. P. Laverdure, J. C. Labbe, G. J. Miller and T. E. Hebert (2013). "The expanding roles of Gbetagamma subunits in G protein-coupled receptor signaling and drug action." Pharmacol Rev 65(2): 545-577.

Kobilka, B. K. (2007). "G protein coupled receptor structure and activation." Biochim Biophys Acta 1768(4): 794-807.

Milligan, G. and E. Kostenis (2006). "Heterotrimeric G-proteins: a short history." Br J Pharmacol 147 Suppl 1: S46-55.

Pitcher, J. A., N. J. Freedman and R. J. Lefkowitz (1998). "G protein-coupled receptor kinases." Annu Rev Biochem 67: 653-692.

Rana, B. K., T. Shiina and P. A. Insel (2001). "Genetic variations and polymorphisms of G protein-coupled receptors: functional and therapeutic implications." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 41: 593-624.

Ross, E. M. and T. M. Wilkie (2000). "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins." Annu Rev Biochem 69: 795-827.

Sato, M., J. B. Blumer, V. Simon and S. M. Lanier (2006). "Accessory proteins for G proteins: partners in signaling." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 46: 151-187.

Spiegel, A. M. and L. S. Weinstein (2004). "Inherited diseases involving g proteins and g protein-coupled receptors." Annu Rev Med 55: 27-39.

Tobin, A. B. (2008). "G-protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation: where, when and by whom." Br J Pharmacol 153 Suppl 1: S167-176.

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Galactose Metabolism

Fridovich-Keil, J. L. (2006). "Galactosemia: the good, the bad, and the unknown." J Cell Physiol 209(3): 701-705.

McCorvie, T. J. and D. J. Timson (2011). "Structural and molecular biology of type I galactosemia: disease-associated mutations." IUBMB Life 63(11): 949-954.

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Cruz, M. T., M. A. Herman, D. M. Cote, A. E. Ryabinin and M. Roberto (2013). "Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala." Neuropsychopharmacology 38(2): 364-375.

Heppner, K. M., J. Tong, H. Kirchner, R. Nass and M. H. Tschop (2011). "The ghrelin O-acyltransferase-ghrelin system: a novel regulator of glucose metabolism." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(1): 50-55.

Kojima, M. and K. Kangawa (2010). "Ghrelin: more than endogenous growth hormone secretagogue." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1200: 140-148.

Muccioli, G., M. Tschop, M. Papotti, R. Deghenghi, M. Heiman and E. Ghigo (2002). "Neuroendocrine and peripheral activities of ghrelin: implications in metabolism and obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 235-254.

Varela, L., M. J. Vazquez, F. Cordido, R. Nogueiras, A. Vidal-Puig, C. Dieguez and M. Lopez (2011). "Ghrelin and lipid metabolism: key partners in energy balance." J Mol Endocrinol 46(2): R43-63.

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Authier, F. and B. Desbuquois (2008). "Glucagon receptors." Cell Mol Life Sci 65(12): 1880-1899.

Habegger, K. M., K. M. Heppner, N. Geary, T. J. Bartness, R. DiMarchi and M. H. Tschop (2010). "The metabolic actions of glucagon revisited." Nat Rev Endocrinol 6(12): 689-697.

Holst, J. J. (1997). "Enteroglucagon." Annu Rev Physiol 59: 257-271.

Ozcan, L., et al. (2012). "Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity." Cell Metab 15(5): 739-751.

Peng, I. C., et el. (2012). "Glucagon regulates ACC activity in adipocytes through the CAMKKbeta/AMPK pathway." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302(12): E1560-1568.

Rodgers, R. L. (2012). "Glucagon and cyclic AMP: time to turn the page?" Curr Diabetes Rev 8(5): 362-381.

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Glucagon-Like Peptides

Burcelin, R., M. Serino and C. Cabou (2009). "A role for the gut-to-brain GLP-1-dependent axis in the control of metabolism." Curr Opin Pharmacol 9(6): 744-752.

Combettes, M. M. (2006). "GLP-1 and type 2 diabetes: physiology and new clinical advances." Curr Opin Pharmacol 6(6): 598-605.

De Silva, A. and S. R. Bloom (2012). "Gut Hormones and Appetite Control: A Focus on PYY and GLP-1 as Therapeutic Targets in Obesity." Gut Liver 6(1): 10-20.

Dickson, S. L., R. H. Shirazi, C. Hansson, F. Bergquist, H. Nissbrandt and K. P. Skibicka (2012). "The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue, exendin-4, decreases the rewarding value of food: a new role for mesolimbic GLP-1 receptors." J Neurosci 32(14): 4812-4820.

Drucker, D. J. (2002). "Biological actions and therapeutic potential of the glucagon-like peptides." Gastroenterology 122(2): 531-544.

Drucker, D. J. (2006). "The biology of incretin hormones." Cell Metab 3(3): 153-165.

Estall, J. L. and D. J. Drucker (2006). "Glucagon-like Peptide-2." Annu Rev Nutr 26: 391-411.

Finan, B., et al. (2013). "Unimolecular dual incretins maximize metabolic benefits in rodents, monkeys, and humans." Sci Transl Med 5(209): 209ra151.

Gross, D. N., A. P. van den Heuvel and M. J. Birnbaum (2008). "The role of FoxO in the regulation of metabolism." Oncogene 27(16): 2320-2336.

Roth, J. D., M. R. Erickson, S. Chen and D. G. Parkes (2012). "GLP-1R and amylin agonism in metabolic disease: complementary mechanisms and future opportunities." Br J Pharmacol 166(1): 121-136.

Spranger, J., U. Gundert-Remy and T. Stammschulte (2011). "GLP-1-based therapies: The dilemma of uncertainty." Gastroenterology 141(1): 20-23.

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Delaere, F., C. Magnan and G. Mithieux (2010). "Hypothalamic integration of portal glucose signals and control of food intake and insulin sensitivity." Diabetes Metab 36(4): 257-262.

Kebede, M., et al. (2008). "Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase overexpression in pancreatic beta-cells results in reduced insulin secretion: a new mechanism for fat-induced impairment of beta-cell function." Diabetes 57(7): 1887-1895.

Mithieux, G. (2005). "The new functions of the gut in the control of glucose homeostasis." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8(4): 445-449.

Mithieux, G. (2009). "A novel function of intestinal gluconeogenesis: central signaling in glucose and energy homeostasis." Nutrition 25(9): 881-884.

Mithieux, G., F. Andreelli and C. Magnan (2009). "Intestinal gluconeogenesis: key signal of central control of energy and glucose homeostasis." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12(4): 419-423.

Mithieux, G., P. Misery, C. Magnan, B. Pillot, A. Gautier-Stein, C. Bernard, F. Rajas and C. Zitoun (2005). "Portal sensing of intestinal gluconeogenesis is a mechanistic link in the diminution of food intake induced by diet protein." Cell Metab 2(5): 321-329.

Mithieux, G., F. Rajas and A. Gautier-Stein (2004). "A novel role for glucose 6-phosphatase in the small intestine in the control of glucose homeostasis." J Biol Chem 279(43): 44231-44234.

Previs, S. F., D. Z. Brunengraber and H. Brunengraber (2009). "Is there glucose production outside of the liver and kidney?" Annu Rev Nutr 29: 43-57.

Visinoni, S., et al. (2012). "The role of liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in regulating appetite and adiposity." Diabetes 61(5): 1122-1132.

Yanez, A. J., F. Nualart, C. Droppelmann, R. Bertinat, M. Brito, Concha, II and J. C. Slebe (2003). "Broad expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase provide evidence for gluconeogenesis in human tissues other than liver and kidney." J Cell Physiol 197(2): 189-197.

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Glucose & Glycogen Metabolism

Bowker-Kinley, M. M., W. I. Davis, P. Wu, R. A. Harris and K. M. Popov (1998). "Evidence for existence of tissue-specific regulation of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochem J 329 ( Pt 1): 191-196.

Bunik, V. I. and A. R. Fernie (2009). "Metabolic control exerted by the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction: a cross-kingdom comparison of the crossroad between energy production and nitrogen assimilation." Biochem J 422(3): 405-421.

Chen, W., X. Zhang, K. Birsoy and R. G. Roeder (2010). "A muscle-specific knockout implicates nuclear receptor coactivator MED1 in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(22): 10196-10201.

Locasale, J. W., M. G. Vander Heiden and L. Cantley (2010). "Rewiring of glycolysis in cancer cell metabolism." Cell Cycle 9(21): 4253-4253.

Okar, D. A., C. Wu and A. J. Lange (2004). "Regulation of the regulatory enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase." Adv Enzyme Regul 44: 123-154.

Ozcan, L., et al. (2012). "Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity." Cell Metab 15(5): 739-751.

Piccinini, M., M. Mostert, G. Alberto, C. Ramondetti, R. F. Novi, P. Dalmasso and M. T. Rinaudo (2005). "Down-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase in obese subjects is a defect that signals insulin resistance." Obes Res 13(4): 678-686.

Pugazhenthi, S. and R. L. Khandelwal (1995). "Regulation of glycogen synthase activation in isolated hepatocytes." Mol Cell Biochem 149-150: 95-101.

Rider, M. H., L. Bertrand, D. Vertommen, P. A. Michels, G. G. Rousseau and L. Hue (2004). "6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: head-to-head with a bifunctional enzyme that controls glycolysis." Biochem J 381(Pt 3): 561-579.

Shulman, R. G., G. Bloch and D. L. Rothman (1995). "In vivo regulation of muscle glycogen synthase and the control of glycogen synthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(19): 8535-8542.

Sugden, M. C. and M. J. Holness (2006). "Mechanisms underlying regulation of the expression and activities of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases." Arch Physiol Biochem 112(3): 139-149.

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Glucose Transporters: GLUTs

Augustin, R. (2010). "The protein family of glucose transport facilitators: It's not only about glucose after all." IUBMB Life 62(5): 315-333.

C. Thurmond, J. E. P. D. (2001). "Molecular machinery involved in the insulin-regulated fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane." Molecular Membrane Biology 18(4): 237-245.

Chao, E. C. and R. R. Henry (2010). "SGLT2 inhibition--a novel strategy for diabetes treatment." Nat Rev Drug Discov 9(7): 551-559.

Neumiller, J. J., J. R. White, Jr. and R. K. Campbell (2010). "Sodium-glucose co-transport inhibitors: progress and therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus." Drugs 70(4): 377-385.

Simpson, I. A., D. Dwyer, D. Malide, K. H. Moley, A. Travis and S. J. Vannucci (2008). "The facilitative glucose transporter GLUT3: 20 years of distinction." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295(2): E242-253.

Thorens, B. (2001). "GLUT2 in pancreatic and extra-pancreatic gluco-detection." Molecular Membrane Biology 18(4): 265-273.

Thorens, B. and M. Mueckler (2010). "Glucose transporters in the 21st Century." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298(2): E141-145.

Thorens, H.-G. J. B. (2001). "The extended GLUT-family of sugar/polyol transport facilitators: nomenclature, sequence characteristics, and potential function of its novel members." Molecular Membrane Biology 18(4): 247-256.

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Glutamate: Neurotransmitter

Traynelis, S. F., et al.e (2010). "Glutamate receptor ion channels: structure, regulation, and function." Pharmacol Rev 62(3): 405-496.

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Glycine: Neurotransmitter

Betz, H. and B. Laube (2006). "Glycine receptors: recent insights into their structural organization and functional diversity." J Neurochem 97(6): 1600-1610.

Dutertre, S., C. M. Becker and H. Betz (2012). "Inhibitory glycine receptors: an update." J Biol Chem 287(48): 40216-40223.

Harsing, L. G., G. Zsilla, P. Matyus, K. M. Nagy, B. Marko, Z. Gyarmati and J. Timar (2012). "Interactions between glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT-1) and some inhibitor molecules - glycine transporter type 1 and its inhibitors (review)." Acta Physiol Hung 99(1): 1-17.

Hashimoto, K. (2011). "Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia." Curr Pharm Des 17(2): 112-120.

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Glycoproteins; O-GlcNAcylation; Glycans

Couchman, J. R. (2010). "Transmembrane signaling proteoglycans." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 26: 89-114.

Gill, D. J., H. Clausen and F. Bard (2011). "Location, location, location: new insights into O-GalNAc protein glycosylation." Trends Cell Biol 21(3): 149-158.

Hart, G. W., M. P. Housley and C. Slawson (2007). "Cycling of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine on nucleocytoplasmic proteins." Nature 446(7139): 1017-1022.

Jaeken, J. (2010). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1214: 190-198.

Jaeken, J., T. Hennet, G. Matthijs and H. H. Freeze (2009). "CDG nomenclature: time for a change!" Biochim Biophys Acta 1792(9): 825-826.

Jensen, P. H., D. Kolarich and N. H. Packer (2010). "Mucin-type O-glycosylation--putting the pieces together." FEBS J 277(1): 81-94.

Lairson, L. L., B. Henrissat, G. J. Davies and S. G. Withers (2008). "Glycosyltransferases: structures, functions, and mechanisms." Annu Rev Biochem 77: 521-555.

Lau, K. S. and J. W. Dennis (2008). "N-Glycans in cancer progression." Glycobiology 18(10): 750-760.

Lefeber, D. J., et al. (2009). "Deficiency of Dol-P-Man synthase subunit DPM3 bridges the congenital disorders of glycosylation with the dystroglycanopathies." Am J Hum Genet 85(1): 76-86.

Lommel, M. and S. Strahl (2009). "Protein O-mannosylation: conserved from bacteria to humans." Glycobiology 19(8): 816-828.

Maeda, Y. and T. Kinoshita (2008). "Dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase: structure, function and regulation." Biochim Biophys Acta 1780(6): 861-868.

Muntoni, F., S. Torelli, D. J. Wells and S. C. Brown (2011). "Muscular dystrophies due to glycosylation defects: diagnosis and therapeutic strategies." Curr Opin Neurol 24(5): 437-442.

Rademacher, T. W., R. B. Parekh and R. A. Dwek (1988). "Glycobiology." Annu Rev Biochem 57: 785-838.

Rotty, J. D., G. W. Hart and P. A. Coulombe (2010). "Stressing the role of O-GlcNAc: linking cell survival to keratin modification." Nat Cell Biol 12(9): 847-849.

Spiro, R. G. (2002). "Protein glycosylation: nature, distribution, enzymatic formation, and disease implications of glycopeptide bonds." Glycobiology 12(4): 43R-56R.

Tian, E. and K. G. Ten Hagen (2009). "Recent insights into the biological roles of mucin-type O-glycosylation." Glycoconj J 26(3): 325-334.

Wells, L., Y. Gao, J. A. Mahoney, K. Vosseller, C. Chen, A. Rosen and G. W. Hart (2002). "Dynamic O-glycosylation of nuclear and cytosolic proteins: further characterization of the nucleocytoplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, O-GlcNAcase." J Biol Chem 277(3): 1755-1761.

Wopereis, S., D. J. Lefeber, E. Morava and R. A. Wevers (2006). "Mechanisms in protein O-glycan biosynthesis and clinical and molecular aspects of protein O-glycan biosynthesis defects: a review." Clin Chem 52(4): 574-600.

Yan, A. and W. J. Lennarz (2005). "Unraveling the mechanism of protein N-glycosylation." J Biol Chem 280(5): 3121-3124.

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Graves Disease

Girgis, C. M., B. L. Champion and J. R. Wall (2011). "Current concepts in graves' disease." Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2(3): 135-144.

Ploski, R., K. Szymanski and T. Bednarczuk (2011). "The genetic basis of graves' disease." Curr Genomics 12(8): 542-563.

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Gut-Brain Interrelationships and Feeding Behaviors

Breen, D. M., C. S. Yang and T. K. Lam (2011). "Gut-brain signalling: how lipids can trigger the gut." Diabetes Metab Res Rev 27(2): 113-119.

Chaudhri, O., C. Small and S. Bloom (2006). "Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361(1471): 1187-1209.

de Araujo, I. E., J. G. Ferreira, L. A. Tellez, X. Ren and C. W. Yeckel (2012). "The gut-brain dopamine axis: a regulatory system for caloric intake." Physiol Behav 106(3): 394-399.

Duraffourd, C., et al. (2012). "Mu-opioid receptors and dietary protein stimulate a gut-brain neural circuitry limiting food intake." Cell 150(2): 377-388.

Engelstoft, M. S., K. L. Egerod, B. Holst and T. W. Schwartz (2008). "A gut feeling for obesity: 7TM sensors on enteroendocrine cells." Cell Metab 8(6): 447-449.

Gribble, F. M. (2012). "The gut endocrine system as a coordinator of postprandial nutrient homoeostasis." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 456-462.

Gutierrez-Aguilar, R. and S. C. Woods (2011). "Nutrition and L and K-enteroendocrine cells." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(1): 35-41.

Hameed, S., W. S. Dhillo and S. R. Bloom (2009). "Gut hormones and appetite control." Oral Dis 15(1): 18-26.

Jayasena, C. N. and S. R. Bloom (2008). "Role of gut hormones in obesity." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 769-787, xi.

Karra, E. and R. L. Batterham (2010). "The role of gut hormones in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis." Mol Cell Endocrinol 316(2): 120-128.

Majumdar, I. D. and H. C. Weber (2010). "Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and their effects on fat tissue." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17(1): 51-56.

Neary, M. T. and R. L. Batterham (2009). "Gut hormones: implications for the treatment of obesity." Pharmacol Ther 124(1): 44-56.

Rasoamanana, R., N. Darcel, G. Fromentin and D. Tome (2012). "Nutrient sensing and signalling by the gut." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 446-455.

Reimann, F., A. M. Habib, G. Tolhurst, H. E. Parker, G. J. Rogers and F. M. Gribble (2008). "Glucose sensing in L cells: a primary cell study." Cell Metab 8(6): 532-539.

Rindi, G., A. B. Leiter, A. S. Kopin, C. Bordi and E. Solcia (2004). "The “Normal” Endocrine Cell of the Gut: Changing Concepts and New Evidences." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1014(1): 1-12.

Tong, J. and D. D'Alessio (2011). "Eating disorders and gastrointestinal peptides." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(1): 42-49.

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Gut Peptides / Hormones

Berger, K., M. S. Winzell, J. Mei and C. Erlanson-Albertsson (2004). "Enterostatin and its target mechanisms during regulation of fat intake." Physiol Behav 83(4): 623-630.

Calatayud, S., A. Alvarez and V. M. Victor (2010). "Gastrin: an acid-releasing, proliferative and immunomodulatory peptide?" Mini Rev Med Chem 10(1): 8-19.

Dong, X. Y., J. M. He, S. Q. Tang, H. Y. Li, Q. Y. Jiang and X. T. Zou (2009). "Is GPR39 the natural receptor of obestatin?" Peptides 30(2): 431-438.

Erlanson-Albertsson, C. and D. York (1997). "Enterostatin--a peptide regulating fat intake." Obes Res 5(4): 360-372.

Jonaidi, H. and R. Rasooli (2013). "Effect of central enterostatin on fat intake in neonatal chicks." Neurosci Lett 533: 60-64.

Yakabi, K. (2008). "Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion." World Journal of Gastroenterology 14(41): 6334.

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Alexander, J. and K. V. Kowdley (2009). "HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis." Genet Med 11(5): 307-313.

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Wilson, J. E. (2003). "Isozymes of mammalian hexokinase: structure, subcellular localization and metabolic function." Journal of Experimental Biology 206(12): 2049-2057.

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Hexosamine Signaling

Hanover, J. A., M. W. Krause and D. C. Love (2010). "The hexosamine signaling pathway: O-GlcNAc cycling in feast or famine." Biochim Biophys Acta 1800(2): 80-95.

Love, D. C., M. W. Krause and J. A. Hanover (2010). "O-GlcNAc cycling: emerging roles in development and epigenetics." Semin Cell Dev Biol 21(6): 646-654.

Metallo, C. M. and M. G. Vander Heiden (2010). "Metabolism strikes back: metabolic flux regulates cell signaling." Genes Dev 24(24): 2717-2722.

Nandi, A., R. Sprung, D. K. Barma, Y. Zhao, S. C. Kim, J. R. Falck and Y. Zhao (2006). "Global identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins." Anal Chem 78(2): 452-458.

Ruan, H. B., et al. (2012). "O-GlcNAc transferase/host cell factor C1 complex regulates gluconeogenesis by modulating PGC-1alpha stability." Cell Metab 16(2): 226-237.

Teo, C. F., E. E. Wollaston-Hayden and L. Wells (2010). "Hexosamine flux, the O-GlcNAc modification, and the development of insulin resistance in adipocytes." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 44-53.

Wellen, K. E., et al. (2010). "The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway couples growth factor-induced glutamine uptake to glucose metabolism." Genes Dev 24(24): 2784-2799.

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Histone Modifications

Bartova, E., J. Krejci, A. Harnicarova, G. Galiova and S. Kozubek (2008). "Histone modifications and nuclear architecture: a review." J Histochem Cytochem 56(8): 711-721.

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Homocysteinuria - Homocysteinemia

McCully, K. S. (2007). "Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention." Am J Clin Nutr 86(5): 1563S-1568S.

Skovby, F., M. Gaustadnes and S. H. Mudd (2010). "A revisit to the natural history of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency." Mol Genet Metab 99(1): 1-3.

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Hypothalamic Control of Feeding Behaviors

Berthoud, H. R. (2012). "The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 478-487.

Buettner, C. and R. C. Camacho (2008). "Hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose production and its potential role in insulin resistance." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(4): 825-840.

Cota, D., K. Proulx, K. A. Smith, S. C. Kozma, G. Thomas, S. C. Woods and R. J. Seeley (2006). "Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake." Science 312(5775): 927-930.

Dowell, P., Z. Hu and M. D. Lane (2005). "Monitoring energy balance: metabolites of fatty acid synthesis as hypothalamic sensors." Annu Rev Biochem 74: 515-534.

Fantino, M. (2011). "Role of lipids in the control of food intake." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14(2): 138-144.

Field, B. C., O. B. Chaudhri and S. R. Bloom (2009). "Obesity treatment: novel peripheral targets." Br J Clin Pharmacol 68(6): 830-843.

Friedman, M. I., C. C. Horn and H. Ji (2005). "Peripheral signals in the control of feeding behavior." Chem Senses 30 Suppl 1: i182-183.

Gao, Q. and T. L. Horvath (2007). "Neurobiology of feeding and energy expenditure." Annu Rev Neurosci 30: 367-398.

Horvath, T. L. and S. Diano (2004). "The floating blueprint of hypothalamic feeding circuits." Nat Rev Neurosci 5(8): 662-667.

Hu, Z., Y. Dai, M. Prentki, S. Chohnan and M. D. Lane (2005). "A role for hypothalamic malonyl-CoA in the control of food intake." J Biol Chem 280(48): 39681-39683.

Hull, E. M. (2011). "Sex, drugs and gluttony: how the brain controls motivated behaviors." Physiol Behav 104(1): 173-177.

Kalsbeek, A., E. Bruinstroop, C. X. Yi, L. P. Klieverik, S. E. La Fleur and E. Fliers (2010). "Hypothalamic control of energy metabolism via the autonomic nervous system." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1212: 114-129.

King, P.J (2005). "The hypothalamus and obesity." Curr Drug Targets 6(2): 225-240

Lam, T. K., G. J. Schwartz and L. Rossetti (2005). "Hypothalamic sensing of fatty acids." Nat Neurosci 8(5): 579-584.

Lee, D. A., et al. (2012). "Tanycytes of the hypothalamic median eminence form a diet-responsive neurogenic niche." Nat Neurosci 15(5): 700-702.

Leibowitz, S. F. and K. E. Wortley (2004). "Hypothalamic control of energy balance: different peptides, different functions." Peptides 25(3): 473-504.

Levin, B. E., C. Magnan, A. Dunn-Meynell and C. Le Foll (2011). "Metabolic sensing and the brain: who, what, where, and how?" Endocrinology 152(7): 2552-2557.

Lopaschuk, G. D., J. R. Ussher and J. S. Jaswal (2010). "Targeting intermediary metabolism in the hypothalamus as a mechanism to regulate appetite." Pharmacol Rev 62(2): 237-264.

Lopez, M., S. Tovar, M. J. Vazquez, L. M. Williams and C. Dieguez (2007). "Peripheral tissue-brain interactions in the regulation of food intake." Proc Nutr Soc 66(1): 131-155.

Martinez de Morentin, P. B., L. Varela, J. Ferno, R. Nogueiras, C. Dieguez and M. Lopez (2010). "Hypothalamic lipotoxicity and the metabolic syndrome." Biochim Biophys Acta 1801(3): 350-361.

Ong, Z. Y. and B. S. Muhlhausler (2011). "Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring." FASEB J 25(7): 2167-2179.

Pan, A. and F. B. Hu (2011). "Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14(4): 385-390.

Riediger, T. (2012). "The receptive function of hypothalamic and brainstem centres to hormonal and nutrient signals affecting energy balance." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 463-477.

Sainsbury, A. and L. Zhang (2010). "Role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in regulation of body weight during energy deficit." Mol Cell Endocrinol 316(2): 109-119.

Schwartz, M. W. and G. J. Morton (2002). "Obesity: keeping hunger at bay." Nature 418(6898): 595-597.

Smeets, P. A., L. Charbonnier, F. van Meer, L. N. van der Laan and M. S. Spetter (2012). "Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 511-520.

Williams, L. M. (2012). "Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity." Proc Nutr Soc 71(4): 521-533.

Woods, S. C. (2009). "The control of food intake: behavioral versus molecular perspectives." Cell Metab 9(6): 489-498.

Zheng, H. and H. R. Berthoud (2008). "Neural systems controlling the drive to eat: mind versus metabolism." Physiology (Bethesda) 23: 75-83.

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Boden, G. (2011). "Obesity, insulin resistance and free fatty acids." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(2): 139-143.

Fred, R. G. and N. Welsh (2009). "The importance of RNA binding proteins in preproinsulin mRNA stability." Mol Cell Endocrinol 297(1-2): 28-33.

Hernandez, C. and J. D. Lin (2009). "A sweet path to insulin resistance through PGC-1beta." Cell Metab 9(3): 215-216.

Kawamori, D., A. J. Kurpad, J. Hu, C. W. Liew, J. L. Shih, E. L. Ford, P. L. Herrera, K. S. Polonsky, O. P. McGuinness and R. N. Kulkarni (2009). "Insulin signaling in alpha cells modulates glucagon secretion in vivo." Cell Metab 9(4): 350-361.

Konner, A. C. and J. C. Bruning (2012). "Selective insulin and leptin resistance in metabolic disorders." Cell Metab 16(2): 144-152.

Lamming, D. W., et al. (2012). "Rapamycin-induced insulin resistance is mediated by mTORC2 loss and uncoupled from longevity." Science 335(6076): 1638-1643.

Marino, J. S., Y. Xu and J. W. Hill (2011). "Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose homeostasis." Trends Endocrinol Metab 22(7): 275-285.

Morris, S. N., C. Coogan, K. Chamseddin, S. O. Fernandez-Kim, S. Kolli, J. N. Keller and J. H. Bauer (2012). "Development of diet-induced insulin resistance in adult Drosophila melanogaster." Biochim Biophys Acta 1822(8): 1230-1237.

Mounier, C. and B. I. Posner (2006). "Transcriptional regulation by insulin: from the receptor to the gene." Can J Physiol Pharmacol 84(7): 713-724.

Newgard, C. B. (2012). "Interplay between lipids and branched-chain amino acids in development of insulin resistance." Cell Metab 15(5): 606-614.

Rabe, K., M. Lehrke, K. G. Parhofer and U. C. Broedl (2008). "Adipokines and insulin resistance." Mol Med 14(11-12): 741-751.

Ren, J., P. Jin, E. Wang, E. Liu, D. M. Harlan, X. Li and D. F. Stroncek (2007). "Pancreatic islet cell therapy for type I diabetes: understanding the effects of glucose stimulation on islets in order to produce better islets for transplantation." J Transl Med 5: 1.

Ryu, D., K. J. Oh, H. Y. Jo, S. Hedrick, Y. N. Kim, Y. J. Hwang, T. S. Park, J. S. Han, C. S. Choi, M. Montminy and S. H. Koo (2009). "TORC2 regulates hepatic insulin signaling via a mammalian phosphatidic acid phosphatase, LIPIN1." Cell Metab 9(3): 240-251.

Saini, V. (2010). "Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus." World J Diabetes 1(3): 68-75.

Saltiel, A. R. (2012). "Insulin resistance in the defense against obesity." Cell Metab 15(6): 798-804.

Scherer, T., et al. (2011). "Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis." Cell Metab 13(2): 183-194.

Shao, S., Z. Fang, X. Yu and M. Zhang (2009). "Transcription factors involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 384(4): 401-404.

Summers, S. A. (2010). "Sphingolipids and insulin resistance: the five Ws." Curr Opin Lipidol 21(2): 128-135.

Tanti, J. F. and J. Jager (2009). "Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation." Curr Opin Pharmacol 9(6): 753-762.

Tiganis, T. (2011). "Reactive oxygen species and insulin resistance: the good, the bad and the ugly." Trends Pharmacol Sci 32(2): 82-89.

Wolf, G. (2008). "Role of fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus." Nutr Rev 66(10): 597-600.

Won, J. C., P. G. Jang, C. Namkoong, E. H. Koh, S. K. Kim, J. Y. Park, K. U. Lee and M. S. Kim (2009). "Central administration of an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer inhibits the anorexigenic effects of leptin and insulin." Obesity (Silver Spring) 17(10): 1861-1865.

Yue, J. T. and T. K. Lam (2012). "Lipid sensing and insulin resistance in the brain." Cell Metab 15(5): 646-655.

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Harle, P. and R. H. Straub (2006). "Leptin is a link between adipose tissue and inflammation." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1069: 454-462.

Kleinridders, A., et al. (2009). "MyD88 signaling in the CNS is required for development of fatty acid-induced leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity." Cell Metab 10(4): 249-259.

Leinninger, G. M., et al. (2009). "Leptin acts via leptin receptor-expressing lateral hypothalamic neurons to modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suppress feeding." Cell Metab 10(2): 89-98.

Liu, Q., J. Zhang, C. Zerbinatti, Y. Zhan, B. J. Kolber, J. Herz, L. J. Muglia and G. Bu (2011). "Lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system." PLoS Biol 9(1): e1000575.

Marino, J. S., Y. Xu and J. W. Hill (2011). "Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose homeostasis." Trends Endocrinol Metab 22(7): 275-285.

Morris, D. L. and L. Rui (2009). "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297(6): E1247-1259.

Myers, M. G., Jr., R. L. Leibel, R. J. Seeley and M. W. Schwartz (2010). "Obesity and leptin resistance: distinguishing cause from effect." Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(11): 643-651.

Myers, M. G., Jr., H. Munzberg, G. M. Leinninger and R. L. Leshan (2009). "The geometry of leptin action in the brain: more complicated than a simple ARC." Cell Metab 9(2): 117-123.

Oswal, A. and G. Yeo (2010). "Leptin and the control of body weight: a review of its diverse central targets, signaling mechanisms, and role in the pathogenesis of obesity." Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(2): 221-229.

Won, J. C., P. G. Jang, C. Namkoong, E. H. Koh, S. K. Kim, J. Y. Park, K. U. Lee and M. S. Kim (2009). "Central administration of an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer inhibits the anorexigenic effects of leptin and insulin." Obesity (Silver Spring) 17(10): 1861-1865

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Lipid Mediators of Inflammation

Fritsche, K. (2006). "Fatty acids as modulators of the immune response." Annu Rev Nutr 26: 45-73.

Greenwood, J., L. Steinman and S. S. Zamvil (2006). "Statin therapy and autoimmune disease: from protein prenylation to immunomodulation." Nat Rev Immunol 6(5): 358-370.

Kim, S. F., D. A. Huri and S. H. Snyder (2005). "Inducible nitric oxide synthase binds, S-nitrosylates, and activates cyclooxygenase-2." Science 310(5756): 1966-1970.

Lagarde, M., P. Chen, E. Vericel and M. Guichardant (2010). "Fatty acid-derived lipid mediators and blood platelet aggregation." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82(4-6): 227-230.

Lawrence, T., D. A. Willoughby and D. W. Gilroy (2002). "Anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and insights into the resolution of inflammation." Nat Rev Immunol 2(10): 787-795.

Levy, B. D. (2010). "Resolvins and protectins: natural pharmacophores for resolution biology." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82(4-6): 327-332.

Serhan, C. N. (2005). "Lipoxins and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxins are the first lipid mediators of endogenous anti-inflammation and resolution." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73(3-4): 141-162.

Serhan, C. N. (2007). "Resolution phase of inflammation: novel endogenous anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators and pathways." Annu Rev Immunol 25: 101-137.

Serhan, C. N. (2009). "Systems approach to inflammation resolution: identification of novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators." J Thromb Haemost 7 Suppl 1: 44-48.

Serhan, C. N., N. Chiang and T. E. Van Dyke (2008). "Resolving inflammation: dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators." Nat Rev Immunol 8(5): 349-361.

Serhan, C. N., S. Yacoubian and R. Yang (2008). "Anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators." Annu Rev Pathol 3: 279-312.

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Lipid - Lipoprotein Receptors

Ashraf, M. Z. and N. Gupta (2011). "Scavenger receptors: Implications in atherothrombotic disorders." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43(5): 697-700.

Brown, A. J., S. Jupe and C. P. Briscoe (2005). "A family of fatty acid binding receptors." DNA Cell Biol 24(1): 54-61.

Flock, G., D. Holland, Y. Seino and D. J. Drucker (2011). "GPR119 regulates murine glucose homeostasis through incretin receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms." Endocrinology 152(2): 374-383.

Gautam, S. and M. Banerjee (2011). "The macrophage Ox-LDL receptor, CD36 and its association with type II diabetes mellitus." Mol Genet Metab 102(4): 389-398.

Hirasawa, A., K. et al. (2005). "Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120." Nat Med 11(1): 90-94.

Ichimura, A., et al. (2012). "Dysfunction of lipid sensor GPR120 leads to obesity in both mouse and human." Nature 483(7389): 350-354.

Kebede, M. A., T. Alquier, M. G. Latour and V. Poitout (2009). "Lipid receptors and islet function: therapeutic implications?" Diabetes Obes Metab 11 Suppl 4: 10-20.

Kitamura, H., et al. (2012). "GPR34 is a receptor for lysophosphatidylserine with a fatty acid at the sn-2 position." J Biochem 151(5): 511-518.

Lin, M. E., D. R. Herr and J. Chun (2010). "Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors: signaling properties and disease relevance." Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 91(3-4): 130-138.

Love-Gregory, L. and N. A. Abumrad (2011). "CD36 genetics and the metabolic complications of obesity." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14(6): 527-534.

Offermanns, S., S. L. Colletti, T. W. Lovenberg, G. Semple, A. Wise and I. J. AP (2011). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B)." Pharmacol Rev 63(2): 269-290.

Oh, D. Y. and W. S. Lagakos (2011). "The role of G-protein-coupled receptors in mediating the effect of fatty acids on inflammation and insulin sensitivity." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14(4): 322-327.

Oh, D. Y. and J. M. Olefsky (2012). "Omega 3 fatty acids and GPR120." Cell Metab 15(5): 564-565.

Oh, D. Y., S. Talukdar, E. J. Bae, T. Imamura, H. Morinaga, W. Fan, P. Li, W. J. Lu, S. M. Watkins and J. M. Olefsky (2010). "GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects." Cell 142(5): 687-698.

Overton, H. A., et al. (2006). "Deorphanization of a G protein-coupled receptor for oleoylethanolamide and its use in the discovery of small-molecule hypophagic agents." Cell Metab 3(3): 167-175.

Overton, H. A., M. C. Fyfe and C. Reynet (2008). "GPR119, a novel G protein-coupled receptor target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity." Br J Pharmacol 153 Suppl 1: S76-81.

Pineiro, R. and M. Falasca (2012). "Lysophosphatidylinositol signalling: new wine from an old bottle." Biochim Biophys Acta 1821(4): 694-705.

Saltiel, A. R. (2010). "Fishing out a sensor for anti-inflammatory oils." Cell 142(5): 672-674.

Silverstein, R. L. and M. Febbraio (2009). "CD36, a scavenger receptor involved in immunity, metabolism, angiogenesis, and behavior." Sci Signal 2(72): re3.

Talukdar, S., J. M. Olefsky and O. Osborn (2011). "Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid-sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases." Trends Pharmacol Sci 32(9): 543-550.

Tan, C. P., et al. (2008). "Selective small-molecule agonists of G protein-coupled receptor 40 promote glucose-dependent insulin secretion and reduce blood glucose in mice." Diabetes 57(8): 2211-2219.

Wang, J., X. Wu, N. Simonavicius, H. Tian and L. Ling (2006). "Medium-chain fatty acids as ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR84." J Biol Chem 281(45): 34457-34464.

Zhao, P. and M. E. Abood (2013). "GPR55 and GPR35 and their relationship to cannabinoid and lysophospholipid receptors." Life Sci 92(8-9): 453-457.

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Berliner, J. (2002). "Introduction. Lipid oxidation products and atherosclerosis." Vascul Pharmacol 38(4): 187-191.

Bermudez, V., et al. (2010). "Lipoprotein(a): from molecules to therapeutics." Am J Ther 17(3): 263-273.

Brinton, E. A. (2010). "Effects of ethanol intake on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis." Curr Opin Lipidol 21(4): 346-351.

Chapman, M. J., W. Le Goff, M. Guerin and A. Kontush (2010). "Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: at the heart of the action of lipid-modulating therapy with statins, fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors." Eur Heart J 31(2): 149-164.

Davidson, M. H. and P. P. Toth (2007). "High-density lipoprotein metabolism: potential therapeutic targets." Am J Cardiol 100(11 A): n32-40.

Fidge, N. H. (1999). "High density lipoprotein receptors, binding proteins, and ligands." J Lipid Res 40(2): 187-201.

Furlong, C. E., et al. (2010). "Human PON1, a biomarker of risk of disease and exposure." Chem Biol Interact 187(1-3): 355-361.

Gautam, S. and M. Banerjee (2011). "The macrophage Ox-LDL receptor, CD36 and its association with type II diabetes mellitus." Mol Genet Metab 102(4): 389-398.

Gomez, P., P. Perez-Martinez, C. Marin, A. Camargo, E. M. Yubero-Serrano, A. Garcia-Rios, F. Rodriguez, J. Delgado-Lista, F. Perez-Jimenez and J. Lopez-Miranda (2010). "APOA1 and APOA4 gene polymorphisms influence the effects of dietary fat on LDL particle size and oxidation in healthy young adults." J Nutr 140(4): 773-778.

Hafiane, A. and J. Genest (2013). "HDL, Atherosclerosis, and Emerging Therapies." Cholesterol 2013: 891403.

Hunt, J. A. and Z. Lu (2009). "Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors." Curr Top Med Chem 9(5): 419-427.

Jessup, W., P. Wilson, K. Gaus and L. Kritharides (2002). "Oxidized lipoproteins and macrophages." Vascul Pharmacol 38(4): 239-248.

Joy, T. and R. A. Hegele (2009). "The end of the road for CETP inhibitors after torcetrapib?" Current Opinion in Cardiology 24(4): 364-371.

Kontush, A. and M. J. Chapman (2010). "Antiatherogenic function of HDL particle subpopulations: focus on antioxidative activities." Curr Opin Lipidol 21(4): 312-318.

Lau, J. F. and D. A. Smith (2009). "Advanced lipoprotein testing: recommendations based on current evidence." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 38(1): 1-31.

Mineo, C. and P. W. Shaul (2013). "Regulation of signal transduction by HDL." J Lipid Res 54(9): 2315-2324.

Oliveira, H. C. and E. C. de Faria (2011). "Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: the controversial relation to atherosclerosis and emerging new biological roles." IUBMB Life 63(4): 248-257.

Packard, C. J. (2009). "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as a biomarker of coronary heart disease and a therapeutic target." Curr Opin Cardiol 24(4): 358-363.

Podrez, E. A. (2010). "Anti-oxidant properties of high-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 37(7): 719-725.

Precourt, L. P., D. Amre, M. C. Denis, J. C. Lavoie, E. Delvin, E. Seidman and E. Levy (2011). "The three-gene paraoxonase family: physiologic roles, actions and regulation." Atherosclerosis 214(1): 20-36.

Qin, X. and P. Tso (2005). "The role of apolipoprotein AIV on the control of food intake." Curr Drug Targets 6(2): 145-151.

Ranalletta, M., et al. (2010). "Biochemical characterization of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors." J Lipid Res 51(9): 2739-2752.

Shen, L., K. J. Pearson, Y. Xiong, C. M. Lo, P. Tso, S. C. Woods, W. S. Davidson and M. Liu (2008). "Characterization of apolipoprotein A-IV in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis." Physiol Behav 95(1-2): 161-167.

Silver, D. L. (2004). "SR-BI and protein-protein interactions in hepatic high density lipoprotein metabolism." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 5(4): 327-333.

Steinberg, D. and J. L. Witztum (2010). "Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30(12): 2311-2316.

Stocker, R. and J. F. Keaney, Jr. (2004). "Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis." Physiol Rev 84(4): 1381-1478.

Toth, P. P. (2009). "Novel therapies for increasing serum levels of HDL." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 38(1): 151-170.

Tso, P. and M. Liu (2004). "Apolipoprotein A-IV, food intake, and obesity." Physiol Behav 83(4): 631-643.

Tso, P., M. Liu, T. J. Kalogeris and A. B. Thomson (2001). "The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in the regulation of food intake." Annu Rev Nutr 21: 231-254.

Tziomalos, K., V. G. Athyros, A. S. Wierzbicki and D. P. Mikhailidis (2009). "Lipoprotein a: where are we now?" Curr Opin Cardiol 24(4): 351-357.

Weber, O., H. Bischoff, C. Schmeck and M. F. Bottcher (2010). "Cholesteryl ester transfer protein and its inhibition." Cell Mol Life Sci 67(18): 3139-3149.

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Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Receptors

Choi, J. W., et al. (2010). "LPA receptors: subtypes and biological actions." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 50: 157-186.

Okudaira, S., H. Yukiura and J. Aoki (2010). "Biological roles of lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its production by autotaxin." Biochimie 92(6): 698-706.

Smyth, S. S., H. Y. Cheng, S. Miriyala, M. Panchatcharam and A. J. Morris (2008). "Roles of lysophosphatidic acid in cardiovascular physiology and disease." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 563-570.

Yung, Y. C., T. Mutoh, M. E. Lin, K. Noguchi, R. R. Rivera, J. W. Choi, M. A. Kingsbury and J. Chun (2011). "Lysophosphatidic acid signaling may initiate fetal hydrocephalus." Sci Transl Med 3(99): 99ra87

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Baranowski, M. (2008). "Biological role of liver X receptors." J Physiol Pharmacol 59 Suppl 7: 31-55.

Bensinger, S. J. and P. Tontonoz (2008). "Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors." Nature 454(7203): 470-477.

Edwards, P. A., M. A. Kennedy and P. A. Mak (2002). "LXRs; oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that regulate genes controlling lipid homeostasis." Vascul Pharmacol 38(4): 249-256.

Gabbi, C., M. Warner and J. A. Gustafsson (2014). "Action mechanisms of Liver X Receptors." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 446(3): 647-650.

Goodwin, B. J., W. J. Zuercher and J. L. Collins (2008). "Recent advances in liver X receptor biology and chemistry." Curr Top Med Chem 8(9): 781-791.

Maxwell, K. N., R. E. Soccio, E. M. Duncan, E. Sehayek and J. L. Breslow (2003). "Novel putative SREBP and LXR target genes identified by microarray analysis in liver of cholesterol-fed mice." J Lipid Res 44(11): 2109-2119.

Ulven, S. M., K. T. Dalen, J. A. Gustafsson and H. I. Nebb (2005). "LXR is crucial in lipid metabolism." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73(1): 59-63.

Zelcer, N. and P. Tontonoz (2006). "Liver X receptors as integrators of metabolic and inflammatory signaling." J Clin Invest 116(3): 607-614.

Zhao, C. and K. Dahlman-Wright (2010). "Liver X receptor in cholesterol metabolism." J Endocrinol 204(3): 233-240

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Lysophospholipid (LP) Receptors

Choi, J. W., C. W. Lee and J. Chun (2008). "Biological roles of lysophospholipid receptors revealed by genetic null mice: an update." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 531-539.

Ishii, I., N. Fukushima, X. Ye and J. Chun (2004). "Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology." Annu Rev Biochem 73: 321-354.

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MAP Kinases

Keshet, Y. and R. Seger (2010). "The MAP kinase signaling cascades: a system of hundreds of components regulates a diverse array of physiological functions." Methods Mol Biol 661: 3-38.

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Membranes and Membrane Transporters

Albrecht, C. and E. Viturro (2007). "The ABCA subfamily--gene and protein structures, functions and associated hereditary diseases." Pflugers Arch 453(5): 581-589.

Anderson, R. G. (1998). "The caveolae membrane system." Annu Rev Biochem 67: 199-225.

Borgnia, M., S. Nielsen, A. Engel and P. Agre (1999). "Cellular and molecular biology of the aquaporin water channels." Annu Rev Biochem 68: 425-458.

Broer, S. (2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia." Physiol Rev 88(1): 249-286.

Chan, H., et al. (2010). "The p-type ATPase superfamily." J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 19(1-2): 5-104.

Chillaron, J., R. Roca, A. Valencia, A. Zorzano and M. Palacin (2001). "Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology." Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 281(6): F995-1018.

Dean, M., A. Rzhetsky and R. Allikmets (2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily." Genome Res 11(7): 1156-1166.

Garty, H. and S. J. Karlish (2006). "Role of FXYD proteins in ion transport." Annu Rev Physiol 68: 431-459.

Hazard, S. E. and S. B. Patel (2007). "Sterolins ABCG5 and ABCG8: regulators of whole body dietary sterols." Pflugers Arch 453(5): 745-752.

Hediger, M. A., M. F. Romero, J. B. Peng, A. Rolfs, H. Takanaga and E. A. Bruford (2004). "The ABCs of solute carriers: physiological, pathological and therapeutic implications of human membrane transport proteinsIntroduction." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 465-468.

Jorgensen, P. L., K. O. Hakansson and S. J. Karlish (2003). "Structure and mechanism of Na,K-ATPase: functional sites and their interactions." Annu Rev Physiol 65: 817-849.

Kaplan, J. H. (2002). "Biochemistry of Na,K-ATPase." Annu Rev Biochem 71: 511-535.

Karten, B., K. B. Peake and J. E. Vance (2009). "Mechanisms and consequences of impaired lipid trafficking in Niemann-Pick type C1-deficient mammalian cells." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(7): 659-670.

Kolovou, G. D., D. P. Mikhailidis, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, S. S. Daskalopoulou and D. V. Cokkinos (2006). "Tangier disease four decades of research: a reflection of the importance of HDL." Curr Med Chem 13(7): 771-782.

Linton, K. J. (2007). "Structure and function of ABC transporters." Physiology (Bethesda) 22: 122-130.

Morth, J. P., B. P. Pedersen, M. J. Buch-Pedersen, J. P. Andersen, B. Vilsen, M. G. Palmgren and P. Nissen (2011). "A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12(1): 60-70.

Neupert, W. (1997). "Protein import into mitochondria." Annu Rev Biochem 66: 863-917.

Palacin, M., R. Estevez, J. Bertran and A. Zorzano (1998). "Molecular biology of mammalian plasma membrane amino acid transporters." Physiol Rev 78(4): 969-1054.

Palmgren, M. G. and P. Nissen (2011). "P-type ATPases." Annu Rev Biophys 40: 243-266.

Parks, J. S., S. Chung and G. S. Shelness (2012). "Hepatic ABC transporters and triglyceride metabolism." Curr Opin Lipidol 23(3): 196-200.

Poulsen, H., P. Morth, J. Egebjerg and P. Nissen (2010). "Phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+,K+-ATPase." FEBS Lett 584(12): 2589-2595.

Rees, D. C., E. Johnson and O. Lewinson (2009). "ABC transporters: the power to change." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10(3): 218-227.

Schoner, W. (2002). "Endogenous cardiac glycosides, a new class of steroid hormones." European Journal of Biochemistry 269(10): 2440-2448.

Stieger, B., Y. Meier and P. J. Meier (2007). "The bile salt export pump." Pflugers Arch 453(5): 611-620.

Storch, J. and Z. Xu (2009). "Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and intracellular cholesterol trafficking." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(7): 671-678.

Tamma, G., G. Procino, M. G. Mola, M. Svelto and G. Valenti (2008). "Functional involvement of Annexin-2 in cAMP induced AQP2 trafficking." Pflugers Arch 456(4): 729-736.

Tang, C. and J. F. Oram (2009). "The cell cholesterol exporter ABCA1 as a protector from cardiovascular disease and diabetes." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(7): 563-572.

Tarr, P. T., E. J. Tarling, D. D. Bojanic, P. A. Edwards and A. Baldan (2009). "Emerging new paradigms for ABCG transporters." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(7): 584-593.

Wanders, R. J., W. F. Visser, C. W. van Roermund, S. Kemp and H. R. Waterham (2007). "The peroxisomal ABC transporter family." Pflugers Arch 453(5): 719-734.

Zarubica, A., D. Trompier and G. Chimini (2007). "ABCA1, from pathology to membrane function." Pflugers Arch 453(5): 569-579.

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Metabolic Syndrome

Bruce, K. D. and C. D. Byrne (2009). "The metabolic syndrome: common origins of a multifactorial disorder." Postgrad Med J 85(1009): 614-621.

Bruce, K. D. and M. A. Hanson (2010). "The developmental origins, mechanisms, and implications of metabolic syndrome." J Nutr 140(3): 648-652.

Gallagher, E. J., D. LeRoith and E. Karnieli (2008). "The metabolic syndrome--from insulin resistance to obesity and diabetes." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 559-579, vii.

Haffner, S. and H. Taegtmeyer (2003). "Epidemic obesity and the metabolic syndrome." Circulation 108(13): 1541-1545.

Kereiakes, D. J. and J. T. Willerson (2003). "Metabolic syndrome epidemic." Circulation 108(13): 1552-1553.

Reaven, G. M. (2011). "The metabolic syndrome: time to get off the merry-go-round?" J Intern Med 269(2): 127-136.

Reilly, M. P. and D. J. Rader (2003). "The metabolic syndrome: more than the sum of its parts?" Circulation 108(13): 1546-1551.

Ren, J., L. Pulakat, A. Whaley-Connell and J. R. Sowers (2010). "Mitochondrial biogenesis in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease." J Mol Med (Berl) 88(10): 993-1001.

Wilson, P. W. and S. M. Grundy (2003). "The metabolic syndrome: a practical guide to origins and treatment: Part I." Circulation 108(12): 1422-1424.

Wilson, P. W. and S. M. Grundy (2003). "The metabolic syndrome: a practical guide to origins and treatment: Part II." Circulation 108(13): 1537-1540.

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Alessi, D. R., L. R. Pearce and J. M. Garcia-Martinez (2009). "New insights into mTOR signaling: mTORC2 and beyond." Sci Signal 2(67): pe27.

Guertin, D. A. and D. M. Sabatini (2009). "The pharmacology of mTOR inhibition." Sci Signal 2(67): pe24.

Hagiwara, A., et al. (2012). "Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c." Cell Metab 15(5): 725-738.

Robida-Stubbs, S., et al. (2012). "TOR signaling and rapamycin influence longevity by regulating SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16/FoxO." Cell Metab 15(5): 713-724.

Wullschleger, S., R. Loewith and M. N. Hall (2006). "TOR signaling in growth and metabolism." Cell 124(3): 471-484

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Neuropeptide Y, NPY

Lindner, D., J. Stichel and A. G. Beck-Sickinger (2008). "Molecular recognition of the NPY hormone family by their receptors." Nutrition 24(9): 907-917.

Michel, M. C., A. Beck-Sickinger, H. Cox, H. N. Doods, H. Herzog, D. Larhammar, R. Quirion, T. Schwartz and T. Westfall (1998). "XVI. International Union of Pharmacology recommendations for the nomenclature of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide receptors." Pharmacol Rev 50(1): 143-150.

Nguyen, A. D., H. Herzog and A. Sainsbury (2011). "Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY: important regulators of energy metabolism." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(1): 56-60.

Parker, E., M. Van Heek and A. Stamford (2002). "Neuropeptide Y receptors as targets for anti-obesity drug development: perspective and current status." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 173-187.

Pedrazzini, T., F. Pralong and E. Grouzmann (2003). "Neuropeptide Y: the universal soldier." Cell Mol Life Sci 60(2): 350-377.

Vona-Davis, L. C. and D. W. McFadden (2007). "NPY family of hormones: clinical relevance and potential use in gastrointestinal disease." Curr Top Med Chem 7(17): 1710-1720.

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Nitrogen Metabolism

Albrecht, J., M. Zielinska and M. D. Norenberg (2010). "Glutamine as a mediator of ammonia neurotoxicity: A critical appraisal." Biochem Pharmacol 80(9): 1303-1308.

Butterworth, R. F. (2001). "Glutamate transporter and receptor function in disorders of ammonia metabolism." Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 7(4): 276-279.

Cooper, A. J. (2001). "Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity." Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 7(4): 280-286.

Daikhin, Y. and M. Yudkoff (2000). "Compartmentation of brain glutamate metabolism in neurons and glia." J Nutr 130(4S Suppl): 1026S-1031S.

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Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, NALFD

Lewis, J. R. and S. R. Mohanty (2010). "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review and update." Dig Dis Sci 55(3): 560-578.

Malaguarnera, M., M. Di Rosa, F. Nicoletti and L. Malaguarnera (2009). "Molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD progression." J Mol Med (Berl) 87(7): 679-695.

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Nuclear Receptors

Biddie, S. C. and S. John (2014). "Minireview: Conversing with chromatin: the language of nuclear receptors." Mol Endocrinol 28(1): 3-15.

Burris, T. P., L. A. Solt, Y. Wang, C. Crumbley, S. Banerjee, K. Griffett, T. Lundasen, T. Hughes and D. J. Kojetin (2013). "Nuclear receptors and their selective pharmacologic modulators." Pharmacol Rev 65(2): 710-778.

Dasgupta, S., D. M. Lonard and B. W. O'Malley (2014). "Nuclear receptor coactivators: master regulators of human health and disease." Annu Rev Med 65: 279-292.

Perissi, V. and M. G. Rosenfeld (2005). "Controlling nuclear receptors: the circular logic of cofactor cycles." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(7): 542-554.

Privalsky, M. L. (2004). "The role of corepressors in transcriptional regulation by nuclear hormone receptors." Annu Rev Physiol 66: 315-360.

Simons, S. S., Jr., D. P. Edwards and R. Kumar (2014). "Minireview: dynamic structures of nuclear hormone receptors: new promises and challenges." Mol Endocrinol 28(2): 173-182.

Stewart, M. D. and J. Wong (2009). "Chapter 7 Nuclear Receptor Repression." 87: 235-259.

Watson, P. J., L. Fairall and J. W. Schwabe (2012). "Nuclear hormone receptor co-repressors: structure and function." Mol Cell Endocrinol 348(2): 440-449.

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Abrams, P. and L. E. Levitt Katz (2011). "Metabolic effects of obesity causing disease in childhood." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18(1): 23-27.

Ahima, R. S. and D. A. Antwi (2008). "Brain regulation of appetite and satiety." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(4): 811-823.

Arch, J. R. (2002). "beta(3)-Adrenoceptor agonists: potential, pitfalls and progress." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 99-107.

Barnhart, K. F., et al. (2011). "A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys." Sci Transl Med 3(108): 108-112.

Boden, G. (2008). "Obesity and free fatty acids." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 635-646, viii-ix

Bournat, J. C. and C. W. Brown (2010). "Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity." Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17(5): 446-452

Caesar, R., F. Fak and F. Backhed (2010). "Effects of gut microbiota on obesity and atherosclerosis via modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism." J Intern Med 268(4): 320-328

Cooke, D. and S. Bloom (2006). "The obesity pipeline: current strategies in the development of anti-obesity drugs." Nat Rev Drug Discov 5(11): 919-931

de La Serre, C. B., C. L. Ellis, J. Lee, A. L. Hartman, J. C. Rutledge and H. E. Raybould (2010). "Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and gut inflammation." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299(2): G440-448

Diamant, M., E. E. Blaak and W. M. de Vos (2011). "Do nutrient-gut-microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?" Obes Rev 12(4): 272-281

Franssen, R., H. Monajemi, E. S. Stroes and J. J. Kastelein (2008). "Obesity and dyslipidemia." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 623-633

Goossens, V. J., et al. (2011). "Lack of evidence for the role of human adenovirus-36 in obesity in a European cohort." Obesity (Silver Spring) 19(1): 220-221

Goossens, V. J., P. F. Wolffs and C. A. Bruggeman (2011). "Response to “Prevalence of Infection With Adenovirus-36 in Belgium and Holland and Association With Obesity”." Obesity 19(1): 3-3

Grant, R. W., B. M. Vester Boler, T. K. Ridge, T. K. Graves and K. S. Swanson (2011). "Adipose tissue transcriptome changes during obesity development in female dogs." Physiol Genomics 43(6): 295-307

Guan, X. M.,et al. (2010). "Regulation of energy homeostasis by bombesin receptor subtype-3: selective receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity." Cell Metab 11(2): 101-112

Han, M. S., D. Y. Jung, C. Morel, S. A. Lakhani, J. K. Kim, R. A. Flavell and R. J. Davis (2013). "JNK expression by macrophages promotes obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation." Science 339(6116): 218-222

Hatori, M., et al. (2012). "Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet." Cell Metab 15(6): 848-860

Jayasena, C. N. and S. R. Bloom (2008). "Role of gut hormones in obesity." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37(3): 769-787, xi.

Larder, R., M. K. Cheung, Y. C. Tung, G. S. Yeo and A. P. Coll (2011). "Where to go with FTO?" Trends Endocrinol Metab 22(2): 53-59

Larsen, P. J., et al. (2002). "Ups and downs for neuropeptides in body weight homeostasis: pharmacological potential of cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript and pre-proglucagon-derived peptides." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 159-172

Li, S. and R. J. Loos (2008). "Progress in the genetics of common obesity: size matters." Curr Opin Lipidol 19(2): 113-121

Liao, G. Y., J. J. An, K. Gharami, E. G. Waterhouse, F. Vanevski, K. R. Jones and B. Xu (2012). "Dendritically targeted Bdnf mRNA is essential for energy balance and response to leptin." Nat Med 18(4): 564-571

Luque, C. A. and J. A. Rey (2002). "The discovery and status of sibutramine as an anti-obesity drug." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 119-128

MacNeil, D. J., et al. (2002). "The role of melanocortins in body weight regulation: opportunities for the treatment of obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 141-157

Mitra, A. K. and K. Clarke (2010). "Viral obesity: fact or fiction?" Obes Rev 11(4): 289-296

Morton, N. M., et al. (2011). "A stratified transcriptomics analysis of polygenic fat and lean mouse adipose tissues identifies novel candidate obesity genes." PLoS One 6(9): e23944

Muccioli, G., M. Tschop, M. Papotti, R. Deghenghi, M. Heiman and E. Ghigo (2002). "Neuroendocrine and peripheral activities of ghrelin: implications in metabolism and obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 235-254

Musso, G., R. Gambino and M. Cassader (2010). "Obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota: the hygiene hypothesis expanded?" Diabetes Care 33(10): 2277-2284

Musso, G., R. Gambino and M. Cassader (2011). "Interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism predisposing to obesity and diabetes." Annu Rev Med 62: 361-380

Myers, M. G., Jr., R. L. Leibel, R. J. Seeley and M. W. Schwartz (2010). "Obesity and leptin resistance: distinguishing cause from effect." Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(11): 643-651

Parker, E., M. Van Heek and A. Stamford (2002). "Neuropeptide Y receptors as targets for anti-obesity drug development: perspective and current status." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 173-187

Reilly, S. M., et al. (2013). "An inhibitor of the protein kinases TBK1 and IKK-varepsilon improves obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions in mice." Nat Med 19(3): 313-321

Saeidi, N., et al. (2013). "Reprogramming of intestinal glucose metabolism and glycemic control in rats after gastric bypass." Science 341(6144): 406-410

Sharma, S. and S. Fulton (2013). "Diet-induced obesity promotes depressive-like behaviour that is associated with neural adaptations in brain reward circuitry." Int J Obes (Lond) 37(3): 382-389

Singla, P., A. Bardoloi and A. A. Parkash (2010). "Metabolic effects of obesity: A review." World J Diabetes 1(3): 76-88.

Smart, D., A. C. Haynes, G. Williams and J. R. Arch (2002). "Orexins and the treatment of obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 199-212

Trovato, G. M., et al. (2010). "Ad36 adipogenic adenovirus in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." Liver Int 30(2): 184-190

Vrieze, A., F. Holleman, E. G. Zoetendal, W. M. de Vos, J. B. Hoekstra and M. Nieuwdorp (2010). "The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition." Diabetologia 53(4): 606-613

Wek, R. C. and T. G. Anthony (2010). "Obesity: stressing about unfolded proteins." Nat Med 16(4): 374-376

Wree, A., A. Kahraman, G. Gerken and A. Canbay (2011). "Obesity affects the liver - the link between adipocytes and hepatocytes." Digestion 83(1-2): 124-133

Yamada, K., E. Wada, Y. Santo-Yamada and K. Wada (2002). "Bombesin and its family of peptides: prospects for the treatment of obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 281-290.

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Baccari, B. C. (2010). "Orexins and gastrointestinal functions." Curr Protein Pept Sci 11(2): 148-155.

Funato, H., A. L. Tsai, J. T. Willie, Y. Kisanuki, S. C. Williams, T. Sakurai and M. Yanagisawa (2009). "Enhanced orexin receptor-2 signaling prevents diet-induced obesity and improves leptin sensitivity." Cell Metab 9(1): 64-76.

Sakurai, T., M. Mieda and N. Tsujino (2010). "The orexin system: roles in sleep/wake regulation." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1200: 149-161.

Smart, D., A. C. Haynes, G. Williams and J. R. Arch (2002). "Orexins and the treatment of obesity." Eur J Pharmacol 440(2-3): 199-212.

Voisin, T., P. Rouet-Benzineb, N. Reuter and M. Laburthe (2003). "Orexins and their receptors: structural aspects and role in peripheral tissues." Cell Mol Life Sci 60(1): 72-87

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, PPARs

Barish, G. D., V. A. Narkar and R. M. Evans (2006). "PPAR delta: a dagger in the heart of the metabolic syndrome." J Clin Invest 116(3): 590-597.

Bugge, A. and S. Mandrup (2010). "Molecular Mechanisms and Genome-Wide Aspects of PPAR Subtype Specific Transactivation." PPAR Res 2010.

Burri, L., G. H. Thoresen and R. K. Berge (2010). "The Role of PPARalpha Activation in Liver and Muscle." PPAR Res 2010.

Christodoulides, C. and A. Vidal-Puig (2010). "PPARs and adipocyte function." Mol Cell Endocrinol 318(1-2): 61-68.

Coll, T., et al. (2010). "The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor beta/delta on the Inflammatory Basis of Metabolic Disease." PPAR Res 2010.

Costa, V., M. A. Gallo, F. Letizia, M. Aprile, A. Casamassimi and A. Ciccodicola (2010). "PPARG: Gene Expression Regulation and Next-Generation Sequencing for Unsolved Issues." PPAR Res 2010.

Finck, B. N. and D. P. Kelly (2006). "PGC-1 coactivators: inducible regulators of energy metabolism in health and disease." J Clin Invest 116(3): 615-622.

Hammarstedt, A., C. X. Andersson, V. Rotter Sopasakis and U. Smith (2005). "The effect of PPARgamma ligands on the adipose tissue in insulin resistance." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73(1): 65-75.

Harmon, G. S., M. T. Lam and C. K. Glass (2011). "PPARs and lipid ligands in inflammation and metabolism." Chem Rev 111(10): 6321-6340.

Hondares, E., M. Rosell, J. Diaz-Delfin, Y. Olmos, M. Monsalve, R. Iglesias, F. Villarroya and M. Giralt (2011). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) induces PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene expression and contributes to thermogenic activation of brown fat: involvement of PRDM16." J Biol Chem 286(50): 43112-43122.

Kawai, M., K. M. Sousa, O. A. MacDougald and C. J. Rosen (2010). "The many facets of PPARgamma: novel insights for the skeleton." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299(1): E3-9.

Koppen, A. and E. Kalkhoven (2010). "Brown vs white adipocytes: the PPARgamma coregulator story." FEBS Lett 584(15): 3250-3259.

Lee, W. H. and S. G. Kim (2010). "AMPK-Dependent Metabolic Regulation by PPAR Agonists." PPAR Res 2010.

Lefebvre, P., G. Chinetti, J. C. Fruchart and B. Staels (2006). "Sorting out the roles of PPAR alpha in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis." J Clin Invest 116(3): 571-580.

Lemay, D. G. and D. H. Hwang (2006). "Genome-wide identification of peroxisome proliferator response elements using integrated computational genomics." J Lipid Res 47(7): 1583-1587.

Liu, C. and J. D. Lin (2011). "PGC-1 coactivators in the control of energy metabolism." Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 43(4): 248-257.

Luconi, M., G. Cantini and M. Serio (2010). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma): Is the genomic activity the only answer?" Steroids 75(8-9): 585-594.

Mandard, S., M. Muller and S. Kersten (2004). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes." Cell Mol Life Sci 61(4): 393-416.

Nakachi, Y., K. Yagi, I. Nikaido, H. Bono, M. Tonouchi, C. Schonbach and Y. Okazaki (2008). "Identification of novel PPARgamma target genes by integrated analysis of ChIP-on-chip and microarray expression data during adipocyte differentiation." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 372(2): 362-366.

Perera, R. J., E. G. Marcusson, S. Koo, X. Kang, Y. Kim, N. White and N. M. Dean (2006). "Identification of novel PPARgamma target genes in primary human adipocytes." Gene 369: 90-99.

Pyper, S. R., N. Viswakarma, S. Yu and J. K. Reddy (2010). "PPARalpha: energy combustion, hypolipidemia, inflammation and cancer." Nucl Recept Signal 8: e002.

Rakhshandehroo, M., B. Knoch, M. Muller and S. Kersten (2010). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes." PPAR Res 2010.

Rogue, A., C. Spire, M. Brun, N. Claude and A. Guillouzo (2010). "Gene Expression Changes Induced by PPAR Gamma Agonists in Animal and Human Liver." PPAR Res 2010: 325183.

Roy, A., M. Jana, G. T. Corbett, S. Ramaswamy, J. H. Kordower, F. J. Gonzalez and K. Pahan (2013). "Regulation of cyclic AMP response element binding and hippocampal plasticity-related genes by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha." Cell Rep 4(4): 724-737.

Semple, R. K., V. K. Chatterjee and S. O'Rahilly (2006). "PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease." J Clin Invest 116(3): 581-589.

Siersbaek, R., R. Nielsen and S. Mandrup (2010). "PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism--novel insights from genome-wide studies." FEBS Lett 584(15): 3242-3249.

Sugden, M. C., P. W. Caton and M. J. Holness (2010). "PPAR control: it's SIRTainly as easy as PGC." J Endocrinol 204(2): 93-104.

Szanto, A. and L. Nagy (2008). "The many faces of PPARgamma: anti-inflammatory by any means?" Immunobiology 213(9-10): 789-803.

Tontonoz, P. and B. M. Spiegelman (2008). "Fat and beyond: the diverse biology of PPARgamma." Annu Rev Biochem 77: 289-312.

Viswakarma, N., Y. Jia, L. Bai, A. Vluggens, J. Borensztajn, J. Xu and J. K. Reddy (2010). "Coactivators in PPAR-Regulated Gene Expression." PPAR Res 2010.

Wagner, K. D. and N. Wagner (2010). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) acts as regulator of metabolism linked to multiple cellular functions." Pharmacol Ther 125(3): 423-435.

Wang, Y. X. (2010). "PPARs: diverse regulators in energy metabolism and metabolic diseases." Cell Res 20(2): 124-137

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Mast, F. D., A. Fagarasanu, B. Knoblach and R. A. Rachubinski (2010). "Peroxisome biogenesis: something old, something new, something borrowed." Physiology (Bethesda) 25(6): 347-356.

Van Veldhoven, P. P. (2010). "Biochemistry and genetics of inherited disorders of peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism." J Lipid Res 51(10): 2863-2895.

Wanders, R. J., S. Ferdinandusse, P. Brites and S. Kemp (2010). "Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity." Biochim Biophys Acta 1801(3): 272-280.

Wanders, R. J. and H. R. Waterham (2006). "Biochemistry of mammalian peroxisomes revisited." Annu Rev Biochem 75: 295-332.

Watkins, P. A. and J. M. Ellis (2012). "Peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetases." Biochim Biophys Acta 1822(9): 1411-1420

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Fernandez-Marcos, P. J. and J. Auwerx (2011). "Regulation of PGC-1alpha, a nodal regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis." Am J Clin Nutr 93(4): 884S-890.

Liang, H. and W. F. Ward (2006). "PGC-1alpha: a key regulator of energy metabolism." Adv Physiol Educ 30(4): 145-151.

Lin, J., C. Handschin and B. M. Spiegelman (2005). "Metabolic control through the PGC-1 family of transcription coactivators." Cell Metab 1(6): 361-370.

Nagai, Y., et al. (2009). "The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 beta in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced insulin resistance." Cell Metab 9(3): 252-264.

Rera, M., et al. (2011). "Modulation of longevity and tissue homeostasis by the Drosophila PGC-1 homolog." Cell Metab 14(5): 623-634.

Schmidt, S. F. and S. Mandrup (2011). "Gene program-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} activity." Genes Dev 25(14): 1453-1458

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Ceulemans, H. and M. Bollen (2004). "Functional diversity of protein phosphatase-1, a cellular economizer and reset button." Physiol Rev 84(1): 1-39.

McConnell, J. L. and B. E. Wadzinski (2009). "Targeting protein serine/threonine phosphatases for drug development." Mol Pharmacol 75(6): 1249-1261.

Shenolikar, S. (1994). "Protein serine/threonine phosphatases--new avenues for cell regulation." Annu Rev Cell Biol 10: 55-86.

Shi, Y. (2009). "Serine/threonine phosphatases: mechanism through structure." Cell 139(3): 468-484.

Wera, S. and B. A. Hemmings (1995). "Serine/threonine protein phosphatases." Biochem J 311 ( Pt 1): 17-29.

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Phospholipase A, PLA

Aoki, J., A. Inoue, K. Makide, N. Saiki and H. Arai (2007). "Structure and function of extracellular phospholipase A1 belonging to the pancreatic lipase gene family." Biochimie 89(2): 197-204.

Aoki, J., Y. Nagai, H. Hosono, K. Inoue and H. Arai (2002). "Structure and function of phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1." Biochim Biophys Acta 1582(1-3): 26-32.

Dennis, E. A., J. Cao, Y. H. Hsu, V. Magrioti and G. Kokotos (2011). "Phospholipase A2 enzymes: physical structure, biological function, disease implication, chemical inhibition, and therapeutic intervention." Chem Rev 111(10): 6130-6185.

Hui, D. Y. (2012). "Phospholipase A(2) enzymes in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases." Curr Opin Lipidol 23(3): 235-240.

Kudo, I. and M. Murakami (2002). "Phospholipase A2 enzymes." Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 68-69: 3-58.

Lambeau, G. and M. H. Gelb (2008). "Biochemistry and physiology of mammalian secreted phospholipases A2." Annu Rev Biochem 77: 495-520.

Lee, J. H. and M. M. Engler (2009). "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2): a promising vascular-specific marker for screening cardiovascular risk?" Prog Cardiovasc Nurs 24(4): 181-189.

Lonn, E. (2010). "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2: a new therapeutic target." Can J Cardiol 26 Suppl A: 27A-31A.

Murakami, M., Y. Taketomi, Y. Miki, H. Sato, T. Hirabayashi and K. Yamamoto (2011). "Recent progress in phospholipase A(2) research: from cells to animals to humans." Prog Lipid Res 50(2): 152-192.

Tellis, C. C. and A. D. Tselepis (2009). "The role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis may depend on its lipoprotein carrier in plasma." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(5): 327-338

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Phospholipase C, PLC

Harden, T. K., G. L. Waldo, S. N. Hicks and J. Sondek (2011). "Mechanism of activation and inactivation of Gq/phospholipase C-beta signaling nodes." Chem Rev 111(10): 6120-6129.

Nakamura, Y. and K. Fukami (2009). "Roles of phospholipase C isozymes in organogenesis and embryonic development." Physiology (Bethesda) 24: 332-341.

Suh, P. G., J. I. Park, L. Manzoli, L. Cocco, J. C. Peak, M. Katan, K. Fukami, T. Kataoka, S. Yun and S. H. Ryu (2008). "Multiple roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozymes." BMB Rep 41(6): 415-434

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Phospholipase D, PLD

Jenkins, G. M. and M. A. Frohman (2005). "Phospholipase D: a lipid centric review." Cell Mol Life Sci 62(19-20): 2305-2316.

Selvy, P. E., R. R. Lavieri, C. W. Lindsley and H. A. Brown (2011). "Phospholipase D: enzymology, functionality, and chemical modulation." Chem Rev 111(10): 6064-6119.

Yuelling, L. M. and B. Fuss (2008). "Autotaxin (ATX): a multi-functional and multi-modular protein possessing enzymatic lysoPLD activity and matricellular properties." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 525-530

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Barker, C. J. and P. O. Berggren (2013). "New horizons in cellular regulation by inositol polyphosphates: insights from the pancreatic beta-cell." Pharmacol Rev 65(2): 641-669.

Cohn, J. S., E. Wat, A. Kamili and S. Tandy (2008). "Dietary phospholipids, hepatic lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease." Curr Opin Lipidol 19(3): 257-262.

Deigner, H. P. and A. Hermetter (2008). "Oxidized phospholipids: emerging lipid mediators in pathophysiology." Curr Opin Lipidol 19(3): 289-294.

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Proopiomelanocortin, POMC

Belgardt, B. F., T. Okamura and J. C. Bruning (2009). "Hormone and glucose signalling in POMC and AgRP neurons." J Physiol 587(Pt 22): 5305-5314.

Cakir, I., N. E. Cyr, M. Perello, B. P. Litvinov, A. Romero, R. C. Stuart and E. A. Nillni (2013). "Obesity induces hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress and impairs proopiomelanocortin (POMC) post-translational processing." J Biol Chem 288(24): 17675-17688.

Cone, R. D. (2005). "Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system." Nat Neurosci 8(5): 571-578.

Jenks, B. G. (2009). "Regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene expression: an overview of the signaling cascades, transcription factors, and responsive elements involved." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1163: 17-30.

Mountjoy, K. G. (2010). "Functions for pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in obesity and diabetes." Biochem J 428(3): 305-324.

Wardlaw, S. L. (2011). "Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin processing and the regulation of energy balance." Eur J Pharmacol 660(1): 213-219

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Protein Kinase C, PKC

Steinberg, S. F. (2008). "Structural basis of protein kinase C isoform function." Physiol Rev 88(4): 1341-1378

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Protein Synthesis: Translation

Bugiani, M., I. Boor, J. M. Powers, G. C. Scheper and M. S. van der Knaap (2010). "Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: a review." J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 69(10): 987-996.

Clemens, M. J. and U. A. Bommer (1999). "Translational control: the cancer connection." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 1-23.

De Benedetti, A. and A. L. Harris (1999). "eIF4E expression in tumors: its possible role in progression of malignancies." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 59-72.

Dever, T. E. (2002). "Gene-specific regulation by general translation factors." Cell 108(4): 545-556.

Doerks, T., R. R. Copley, J. Schultz, C. P. Ponting and P. Bork (2002). "Systematic identification of novel protein domain families associated with nuclear functions." Genome Res 12(1): 47-56.

Donovan, J. and P. R. Copeland (2010). "The efficiency of selenocysteine incorporation is regulated by translation initiation factors." J Mol Biol 400(4): 659-664.

Fitzgerald, K. D. and B. L. Semler (2009). "Bridging IRES elements in mRNAs to the eukaryotic translation apparatus." Biochim Biophys Acta 1789(9-10): 518-528.

Gilbert, W. V. (2010). "Alternative ways to think about cellular internal ribosome entry." J Biol Chem 285(38): 29033-29038.

Gingras, A. C., B. Raught and N. Sonenberg (1999). "eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of translation." Annu Rev Biochem 68: 913-963.

Goodin, D. (2006). "The return of natalizumab: weighing benefit against risk." The Lancet Neurology 5(5): 375-377.

Gopalkrishnan, R. V., Z. Z. Su, N. I. Goldstein and P. B. Fisher (1999). "Translational infidelity and human cancer: role of the PTI-1 oncogene." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 151-162.

Hellen, C. U. (2009). "IRES-induced conformational changes in the ribosome and the mechanism of translation initiation by internal ribosomal entry." Biochim Biophys Acta 1789(9-10): 558-570.

Hellen, C. U. and P. Sarnow (2001). "Internal ribosome entry sites in eukaryotic mRNA molecules." Genes Dev 15(13): 1593-1612.

Hinnebusch, A. G. (2006). "eIF3: a versatile scaffold for translation initiation complexes." Trends Biochem Sci 31(10): 553-562.

Huang, J. and B. D. Manning (2008). "The TSC1-TSC2 complex: a molecular switchboard controlling cell growth." Biochem J 412(2): 179-190.

Jagus, R., B. Joshi and G. N. Barber (1999). "PKR, apoptosis and cancer." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 123-138.

Jefferson, L. S., J. R. Fabian and S. R. Kimball (1999). "Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is the predominant insulin-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2B kinase in skeletal muscle." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 191-200.

Julier, C. and M. Nicolino (2010). "Wolcott-Rallison syndrome." Orphanet J Rare Dis 5: 29.

Keiper, B. D., W. Gan and R. E. Rhoads (1999). "Protein synthesis initiation factor 4G." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 37-41.

Kimball, S. R. (1999). "Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 25-29.

Kimball, S. R. and L. S. Jefferson (2010). "Control of translation initiation through integration of signals generated by hormones, nutrients, and exercise." J Biol Chem 285(38): 29027-29032.

Li, S., N. Sonenberg, A. C. Gingras, M. Peterson, S. Avdulov, V. A. Polunovsky and P. B. Bitterman (2002). "Translational Control of Cell Fate: Availability of Phosphorylation Sites on Translational Repressor 4E-BP1 Governs Its Proapoptotic Potency." Molecular and Cellular Biology 22(8): 2853-2861.

Lopez-Lastra, M., A. Rivas and M. I. Barria (2005). "Protein synthesis in eukaryotes: the growing biological relevance of cap-independent translation initiation." Biol Res 38(2-3): 121-146.

Mamane, Y., E. Petroulakis, O. LeBacquer and N. Sonenberg (2006). "mTOR, translation initiation and cancer." Oncogene 25(48): 6416-6422.

McKendrick, L., V. M. Pain and S. J. Morley (1999). "Translation initiation factor 4E." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 31-35.

Merrick, W. C. (2010). "Eukaryotic protein synthesis: still a mystery." J Biol Chem 285(28): 21197-21201.

Proud, C. G. (2006). "Regulation of protein synthesis by insulin." Biochem Soc Trans 34(Pt 2): 213-216.

Raught, B. and A. C. Gingras (1999). "eIF4E activity is regulated at multiple levels." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 43-57.

Raught, B., A. C. Gingras and N. Sonenberg (2001). "The target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(13): 7037-7044.

Scheper, G. C., M. S. van der Knaap and C. G. Proud (2007). "Translation matters: protein synthesis defects in inherited disease." Nat Rev Genet 8(9): 711-723.

Stadtman, T. C. (1996). "Selenocysteine." Annu Rev Biochem 65: 83-100.

Tee, A. R., B. D. Manning, P. P. Roux, L. C. Cantley and J. Blenis (2003). "Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Gene Products, Tuberin and Hamartin, Control mTOR Signaling by Acting as a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex toward Rheb." Current Biology 13(15): 1259-1268.

Thomas, G. and M. N. Hall (1997). "TOR signalling and control of cell growth." Curr Opin Cell Biol 9(6): 782-787.

Tong, L., R. A. Heim and S. Wu (2011). "Nitric oxide: a regulator of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinases." Free Radic Biol Med 50(12): 1717-1725.

Wek, R. C. and D. R. Cavener (2007). "Translational control and the unfolded protein response." Antioxid Redox Signal 9(12): 2357-2371.

Wek, R. C., H. Y. Jiang and T. G. Anthony (2006). "Coping with stress: eIF2 kinases and translational control." Biochem Soc Trans 34(Pt 1): 7-11.

Willis, A. E. (1999). "Translational control of growth factor and proto-oncogene expression." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31(1): 73-86.

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Conaway, R. C., C. S. Brower and J. W. Conaway (2002). "Emerging roles of ubiquitin in transcription regulation." Science 296(5571): 1254-1258.

Finley, D. (2009). "Recognition and processing of ubiquitin-protein conjugates by the proteasome." Annu Rev Biochem 78: 477-513.

Kraft, C., M. Peter and K. Hofmann (2010). "Selective autophagy: ubiquitin-mediated recognition and beyond." Nat Cell Biol 12(9): 836-841.

Muratani, M. and W. P. Tansey (2003). "How the ubiquitin-proteasome system controls transcription." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4(3): 192-201

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Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, RTKs

Fantl, W. J., D. E. Johnson and L. T. Williams (1993). "Signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases." Annu Rev Biochem 62: 453-481.

Hubbard, S. R. and J. H. Till (2000). "Protein tyrosine kinase structure and function." Annu Rev Biochem 69: 373-398.

Hupfeld, C. J. and J. M. Olefsky (2007). "Regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by GRKs and beta-arrestins." Annu Rev Physiol 69: 561-577

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Renin Angiotensin System

Henriksen, E. J. and M. Prasannarong (2013). "The role of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle." Mol Cell Endocrinol 378(1-2): 15-22.

Jing, F., M. Mogi and M. Horiuchi (2013). "Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in adipose tissue dysfunction." Mol Cell Endocrinol 378(1-2): 23-28.

Muniyappa, R. and S. Yavuz (2013). "Metabolic actions of angiotensin II and insulin: a microvascular endothelial balancing act." Mol Cell Endocrinol 378(1-2): 59-69

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RNA Editing

Blanc, V. and N. O. Davidson (2003). "C-to-U RNA editing: mechanisms leading to genetic diversity." J Biol Chem 278(3): 1395-1398.

Gray, M. W. (2012). "Evolutionary origin of RNA editing." Biochemistry 51(26): 5235-5242.

Hock, J. and G. Meister (2008). "The Argonaute protein family." Genome Biol 9(2): 210.

Hutvagner, G. and M. J. Simard (2008). "Argonaute proteins: key players in RNA silencing." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9(1): 22-32.

Koito, A. and T. Ikeda (2012). "Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, catalytic polypeptide cytidine deaminases and retroviral restriction." Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 3(4): 529-541.

Maas, S., A. Rich and K. Nishikura (2003). "A-to-I RNA editing: recent news and residual mysteries." J Biol Chem 278(3): 1391-1394.

Phatnani, H. P. and A. L. Greenleaf (2006). "Phosphorylation and functions of the RNA polymerase II CTD." Genes Dev 20(21): 2922-2936.

Rosenthal, J. J. and P. H. Seeburg (2012). "A-to-I RNA editing: effects on proteins key to neural excitability." Neuron 74(3): 432-439.

Savva, Y. A., L. E. Rieder and R. A. Reenan (2012). "The ADAR protein family." Genome Biol 13(12): 252.

Zinshteyn, B. and K. Nishikura (2009). "Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing." Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 1(2): 202-209

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Sirtuins: SIRT

Bao, J. and M. N. Sack (2010). "Protein deacetylation by sirtuins: delineating a post-translational regulatory program responsive to nutrient and redox stressors." Cell Mol Life Sci 67(18): 3073-3087.

Chalkiadaki, A. and L. Guarente (2012). "High-fat diet triggers inflammation-induced cleavage of SIRT1 in adipose tissue to promote metabolic dysfunction." Cell Metab 16(2): 180-188.

Dali-Youcef, N., M. Lagouge, S. Froelich, C. Koehl, K. Schoonjans and J. Auwerx (2007). "Sirtuins: the 'magnificent seven', function, metabolism and longevity." Ann Med 39(5): 335-345.

Denu, J. M. (2012). "Fortifying the link between SIRT1, resveratrol, and mitochondrial function." Cell Metab 15(5): 566-567.

El-Khamisy, S. F., G. M. Saifi, M. Weinfeld, F. Johansson, T. Helleday, J. R. Lupski and K. W. Caldecott (2005). "Defective DNA single-strand break repair in spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1." Nature 434(7029): 108-113.

Gut, P. and E. Verdin (2013). "Rejuvenating SIRT1 activators." Cell Metab 17(5): 635-637.

Haigis, M. C. and L. P. Guarente (2006). "Mammalian sirtuins--emerging roles in physiology, aging, and calorie restriction." Genes Dev 20(21): 2913-2921.

Hallows, W. C., S. Lee and J. M. Denu (2006). "Sirtuins deacetylate and activate mammalian acetyl-CoA synthetases." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(27): 10230-10235.

Kanfi, Y., S. Naiman, G. Amir, V. Peshti, G. Zinman, L. Nahum, Z. Bar-Joseph and H. Y. Cohen (2012). "The sirtuin SIRT6 regulates lifespan in male mice." Nature 483(7388): 218-221.

Longo, V. D. and B. K. Kennedy (2006). "Sirtuins in aging and age-related disease." Cell 126(2): 257-268.

Price, N. L., et al. (2012). "SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function." Cell Metab 15(5): 675-690.

Purushotham, A., T. T. Schug, Q. Xu, S. Surapureddi, X. Guo and X. Li (2009). "Hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 alters fatty acid metabolism and results in hepatic steatosis and inflammation." Cell Metab 9(4): 327-338.

Sauve, A. A., C. Wolberger, V. L. Schramm and J. D. Boeke (2006). "The biochemistry of sirtuins." Annu Rev Biochem 75: 435-465.

Schug, T. T. and X. Li (2011). "Sirtuin 1 in lipid metabolism and obesity." Ann Med 43(3): 198-211

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Solute Carrier Transporters: SLC

Baldwin, S. A., P. R. Beal, S. Y. Yao, A. E. King, C. E. Cass and J. D. Young (2004). "The equilibrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC29." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 735-743.

Bartoloni, L. and S. E. Antonarakis (2004). "The human sugar-phosphate/phosphate exchanger family SLC37." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 780-783.

Boll, M., H. Daniel and B. Gasnier (2004). "The SLC36 family: proton-coupled transporters for the absorption of selected amino acids from extracellular and intracellular proteolysis." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 776-779.

Chen, N. H., M. E. Reith and M. W. Quick (2004). "Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 519-531.

Collins, J. F., L. Bai and F. K. Ghishan (2004). "The SLC20 family of proteins: dual functions as sodium-phosphate cotransporters and viral receptors." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 647-652.

Daniel, H. and G. Kottra (2004). "The proton oligopeptide cotransporter family SLC15 in physiology and pharmacology." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 610-618.

Eide, D. J. (2004). "The SLC39 family of metal ion transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 796-800.

Eiden, L. E., M. K. Schafer, E. Weihe and B. Schutz (2004). "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 636-640.

Ganapathy, V., S. B. Smith and P. D. Prasad (2004). "SLC19: the folate/thiamine transporter family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 641-646.

Gasnier, B. (2004). "The SLC32 transporter, a key protein for the synaptic release of inhibitory amino acids." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 756-759.

Gray, J. H., R. P. Owen and K. M. Giacomini (2004). "The concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 728-734.

Hagenbuch, B. and P. Dawson (2004). "The sodium bile salt cotransport family SLC10." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 566-570.

Hagenbuch, B. and P. J. Meier (2004). "Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic classification as OATP/ SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular/functional properties." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 653-665.

Halestrap, A. P. and D. Meredith (2004). "The SLC16 gene family-from monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to aromatic amino acid transporters and beyond." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 619-628.

Hebert, S. C., D. B. Mount and G. Gamba (2004). "Molecular physiology of cation-coupled Cl- cotransport: the SLC12 family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 580-593.

Hirabayashi, Y., A. Kanamori, K. H. Nomura and K. Nomura (2004). "The acetyl-CoA transporter family SLC33." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 760-762.

Ishida, N. and M. Kawakita (2004). "Molecular physiology and pathology of the nucleotide sugar transporter family (SLC35)." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 768-775.

Kanai, Y. and M. A. Hediger (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and pharmacological aspects." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 469-479.

Koepsell, H. and H. Endou (2004). "The SLC22 drug transporter family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 666-676.

Mackenzie, B. and J. D. Erickson (2004). "Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 784-795.

Mackenzie, B. and M. A. Hediger (2004). "SLC11 family of H+-coupled metal-ion transporters NRAMP1 and DMT1." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 571-579.

Markovich, D. and H. Murer (2004). "The SLC13 gene family of sodium sulphate/carboxylate cotransporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 594-602.

McKie, A. T. and D. J. Barlow (2004). "The SLC40 basolateral iron transporter family (IREG1/ferroportin/MTP1)." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 801-806.

Mount, D. B. and M. F. Romero (2004). "The SLC26 gene family of multifunctional anion exchangers." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 710-721.

Murer, H., I. Forster and J. Biber (2004). "The sodium phosphate cotransporter family SLC34." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 763-767.

Nakhoul, N. L. and L. L. Hamm (2004). "Non-erythroid Rh glycoproteins: a putative new family of mammalian ammonium transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 807-812.

Orlowski, J. and S. Grinstein (2004). "Diversity of the mammalian sodium/proton exchanger SLC9 gene family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 549-565.

Palacin, M. and Y. Kanai (2004). "The ancillary proteins of HATs: SLC3 family of amino acid transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 490-494.

Palmieri, F. (2004). "The mitochondrial transporter family (SLC25): physiological and pathological implications." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 689-709.

Palmiter, R. D. and L. Huang (2004). "Efflux and compartmentalization of zinc by members of the SLC30 family of solute carriers." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 744-751.

Petris, M. J. (2004). "The SLC31 (Ctr) copper transporter family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 752-755.

Quednau, B. D., D. A. Nicoll and K. D. Philipson (2004). "The sodium/calcium exchanger family-SLC8." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 543-548.

Reimer, R. J. and R. H. Edwards (2004). "Organic anion transport is the primary function of the SLC17/type I phosphate transporter family." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 629-635.

Romero, M. F., C. M. Fulton and W. F. Boron (2004). "The SLC4 family of HCO 3 - transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 495-509.

Schnetkamp, P. P. (2004). "The SLC24 Na+/Ca2+-K+ exchanger family: vision and beyond." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 683-688.

Shayakul, C. and M. A. Hediger (2004). "The SLC14 gene family of urea transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 603-609.

Stahl, A. (2004). "A current review of fatty acid transport proteins (SLC27)." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 722-727.

Sundberg, B. E., et al. (2008). "The evolutionary history and tissue mapping of amino acid transporters belonging to solute carrier families SLC32, SLC36, and SLC38." J Mol Neurosci 35(2): 179-193.

Takanaga, H., B. Mackenzie and M. A. Hediger (2004). "Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporter family SLC23." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 677-682.

Uldry, M. and B. Thorens (2004). "The SLC2 family of facilitated hexose and polyol transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 480-489.

Verrey, F., E. I. Closs, C. A. Wagner, M. Palacin, H. Endou and Y. Kanai (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 532-542.

Wright, E. M. and E. Turk (2004). "The sodium/glucose cotransport family SLC5." Pflugers Arch 447(5): 510-518.

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Blaho, V. A. and T. Hla (2011). "Regulation of mammalian physiology, development, and disease by the sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptors." Chem Rev 111(10): 6299-6320.

Brinkmann, V. (2007). "Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors in health and disease: mechanistic insights from gene deletion studies and reverse pharmacology." Pharmacol Ther 115(1): 84-105.

Fyrst, H. and J. D. Saba (2010). "An update on sphingosine-1-phosphate and other sphingolipid mediators." Nat Chem Biol 6(7): 489-497.

Hla, T. and A. J. Dannenberg (2012). "Sphingolipid signaling in metabolic disorders." Cell Metab 16(4): 420-434.

Holland, W. L. and S. A. Summers (2008). "Sphingolipids, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease: new insights from in vivo manipulation of sphingolipid metabolism." Endocr Rev 29(4): 381-402.

Igarashi, J. and T. Michel (2008). "S1P and eNOS regulation." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 489-495.

Kim, R. H., K. Takabe, S. Milstien and S. Spiegel (2009). "Export and functions of sphingosine-1-phosphate." Biochim Biophys Acta 1791(7): 692-696.

Kolter, T. and K. Sandhoff (2006). "Sphingolipid metabolism diseases." Biochim Biophys Acta 1758(12): 2057-2079.

Kono, M., M. L. Allende and R. L. Proia (2008). "Sphingosine-1-phosphate regulation of mammalian development." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 435-441.

Platt, F. M., M. Jeyakumar, U. Andersson, R. A. Dwek and T. D. Butters (2005). "New developments in treating glycosphingolipid storage diseases." Adv Exp Med Biol 564: 117-126.

Pyne, N. J. and S. Pyne (2008). "Sphingosine 1-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and growth factor signaling and termination." Biochim Biophys Acta 1781(9): 467-476.

Rosen, H., P. J. Gonzalez-Cabrera, M. G. Sanna and S. Brown (2009). "Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor signaling." Annu Rev Biochem 78: 743-768.

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Elhanati, S., Y. Kanfi, A. Varvak, A. Roichman, I. Carmel-Gross, S. Barth, G. Gibor and H. Y. Cohen (2013). "Multiple regulatory layers of SREBP1/2 by SIRT6." Cell Rep 4(5): 905-912.

Osborne, T. F. and P. J. Espenshade (2009). "Evolutionary conservation and adaptation in the mechanism that regulates SREBP action: what a long, strange tRIP it's been." Genes Dev 23(22): 2578-2591.

Raghow, R., C. Yellaturu, X. Deng, E. A. Park and M. B. Elam (2008). "SREBPs: the crossroads of physiological and pathological lipid homeostasis." Trends Endocrinol Metab 19(2): 65-73.

Sato, R. (2009). "SREBPs: protein interaction and SREBPs." FEBS J 276(3): 622-627.

Shao, W. and P. J. Espenshade (2012). "Expanding roles for SREBP in metabolism." Cell Metab 16(4): 414-419.

Shimano, H. (2009). "SREBPs: physiology and pathophysiology of the SREBP family." FEBS J 276(3): 616-621.

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Heidinger, B. J., J. D. Blount, W. Boner, K. Griffiths, N. B. Metcalfe and P. Monaghan (2012). "Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(5): 1743-1748.

Jaskelioff, M., et al. (2011). "Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice." Nature 469(7328): 102-106.

Lin, J., E. Epel and E. Blackburn (2012). "Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging." Mutat Res 730(1-2): 85-89.

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Sahin, E., et al. (2011). "Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise." Nature 470(7334): 359-365.

Sahin, E. and R. A. Depinho (2010). "Linking functional decline of telomeres, mitochondria and stem cells during ageing." Nature 464(7288): 520-528

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Unfolded Protein Response, UPR

Chakrabarti, A., A. W. Chen and J. D. Varner (2011). "A review of the mammalian unfolded protein response." Biotechnol Bioeng 108(12): 2777-2793.

Diehl, J. A., S. Y. Fuchs and C. Koumenis (2011). "The cell biology of the unfolded protein response." Gastroenterology 141(1): 38-41, 41 e31-32.

Park, S. W., Y. Zhou, J. Lee, A. Lu, C. Sun, J. Chung, K. Ueki and U. Ozcan (2010). "The regulatory subunits of PI3K, p85alpha and p85beta, interact with XBP-1 and increase its nuclear translocation." Nat Med 16(4): 429-437.

Wek, R. C. and T. G. Anthony (2010). "Obesity: stressing about unfolded proteins." Nat Med 16(4): 374-376.

Winnay, J. N., J. Boucher, M. A. Mori, K. Ueki and C. R. Kahn (2010). "A regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase increases the nuclear accumulation of X-box-binding protein-1 to modulate the unfolded protein response." Nat Med 16(4): 438-445

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